New research results on physiological switches that separate morning rhythm and night rhythm of life rhythm will be announced

Some people in the world wake up with the morning sun and others don't sleep until midnight. A research team

at the University of California , U.S.A. , funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Duke Singapore National University Medical School in Singapore, funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) , on the mechanism that the same animal has a difference between morning type and night type , He found a new clue.

Casein kinase 1 dynamics underlie substrate selectivity and the PER2 circadian phosphoswitch.- PubMed-NCBI

Early Riser or Night Owl? New Study May Help to Explain the Difference – NIH Director's Blog

Circadian rhythms (biological clocks) found inside living cells and tissues are composed of complex interactions of many genes and proteins. For example, the cycle in which a protein is synthesized based on information from DNA forms a negative feedback loop that is suppressed according to the amount of the protein, generating a 24-hour cycle in the living body.

In addition, it has been pointed out that there is a 24-hour cycle due to phosphorylation of the protein alone, and that a circadian rhythm is formed by combining various mechanisms. In particular, genes that are deeply involved in the circadian rhythm of living things are called clock genes .

It has been known for some time that the circadian rhythm of an organism is regulated by the rise and fall of the Per protein produced by the

Period gene, one of the clock genes, every 24 hours. In addition, related to the circadian rhythm casein kinase 1 of the enzyme group called, Casein Kinase 1 Isoform Epsilon (CK1ipushiron) and CSNK1D (CK1δ) is involved in stability and decomposition of Per protein, produce a circadian rhythm of biological Plays an important role in

So, the research team formed casein kinase 1 found in flies, hamsters, and humans to find clues to the question `` Why do some humans and organisms have shorter circadian rhythms than other individuals? '' Biochemical analysis was performed on the mutations in the protein.

The researchers found that some of the proteins that make up casein kinase 1 functioned as 'switches' to maintain Per protein expression levels. If the proteins that make up casein kinase 1 are functioning properly, the Per protein will maintain adequate stability and produce an almost perfect 24-hour circadian rhythm. However, if this protein is not functioning properly, the degradation cycle of Per protein will be faster or shorter than 24 hours, and the circadian rhythm will be disrupted. It seems that the more abnormal this circadian rhythm is, the more morning and night-type humans will be created.

Abnormalities in the interaction between the Per protein and casein kinase 1 have been linked to sleep disorders such as

familial advanced sleep phase syndrome . The findings suggest that preventing casein kinase 1 from degrading the Per protein faster than usual may help treat familial advanced sleep phase syndrome.

Casein kinase 1 is also attractive to researchers in that almost the same casein kinase 1 found in humans and hamsters is found in single-cell green algae . NIH noted that it makes sense that very primitive organisms also have casein kinase 1, considering that living things on Earth have evolved in the same 24-hour environment.

in Science,   Creature, Posted by log1h_ik