An easy-to-understand explanation of what happens when introducing 'basic income' which gets money without working
Many people lose their jobs in the near future by robots and AIYou can be forced to change jobsIt is predicted. In such circumstances, each country "Forced to introduce basic income"Mr. Elon mask said. Actually in Finland since January 2017A large-scale experiment was conducted, Even in the state of California in the United States in 2018Basic income system introduced testIt is supposed to be done. What are the problems of the introduction of the basic income system and what happens when actually introduced? About that, it is explained in the animation movie.
Universal Basic Income Explained - Free Money for Everybody? UBI - YouTube
If the country or region guarantees your life, will you continue working?
Or will you study again at school?
...... Or do not work, do you not spend your time studying?
Such a concept isUniversal basic income(UBI) is called.
Although it is a dreamlike concept of "getting money without working," there are actually more than one area where the basic income is introduced as of 2017.
Some countries are considering the introduction of basic income in the form of replacing the welfare system, following the country that introduced the basic income experimentally in the early stage.
Even if it says a basic income to a bite, its form is varied and the content of "Basic income should be such" is still under discussion.
There are plans to "introduce basic income instead of current welfare system" and also a plan to "introduce basic income in addition to current welfare system". Some people think that they should be able to use basic income as an option, while keeping the current system.
What is told in this movieMinimum income securityBasic income as. It guarantees an income that exceeds the poverty line.
In the United States, this is about $ 1,000 a month (about 110,000 yen) or $ 12,000 a year (about 1.36 million yen).
The basic income given with the above amount is not taxed, its purpose of use is not limited and can be used for anything. Such a system of basic income is considered to be able to return wealth to society while maintaining a free market.
Regarding the introduction of basic income, there are of course concerns that "people will stop working and people will be alcoholic."
However, in a survey conducted in 2013, it was investigated that "If poor people are given cash, money is spent on money and cigarettes?", The fact of the inversion has become clear.
Another survey also shows that as we become wealthier we get more medication and tobacco consumption.
"Poor people are drinking with alcohol for laziness" and the image is not a reality, it is just a stereotype.
Actually in the 1970s Basic Income was implemented in Canada, but only 1% stopped working with the introduction of basic income, and the reason for 1% is that "to look after the child" It was mostly.
At this time, people's working time reduction is on average 10% or less. With time I could afford, people could go to school and find a better job.
The laziness of people and the use of drugs did not become a big problem.
There are many restrictions on current American welfare systems and programs for unemployed people. I have to participate in a fixed course ......
I have to apply for a fixed number of job openings every month, or I have to undertake occupations that I do not want. Individual freedom has been greatly impaired, not only wasting time but also contributing to raising the rate of unemployment.
Since basic income does not have such a tie, it is possible to slowly spend some time searching for professions for myself, studying again, and starting up your own business.
In addition, there are points that the problem of the current welfare system will be passive and passive only to poverty.
Many programs support people who have no income, so if they have a little income ... ...
Support will not be accepted.
In addition, even if you earn a job and earn a large income, taxes and other costs will be charged and the actual money that can be used will decrease sharply.
As a result, people who do not work because of support from the country can earn more income than those who work. Therefore, more people will choose the option of "not working" to earn more income.
On the other hand, if you have a basic income, you will be able to find a good job with the guarantee of living and obtain surplus money, so it will become a mechanism that "income gets better as much as you work".
However, in terms of economy, is inflation going up and prices going up? There is also concern that. However, since the basic income money is not "produced" but controls "the flow of money from one side to the other," the view that inflation does not happen is shown in the movie.
So, what about fund sources? In other words, elements such as wealth and sense of values differ from country to country, so that is the answer.
Each country needs a separate process depending on whether it is possible to impose a high tax rate, to cut off expenses for national defense or how well the current welfare system is fulfilling.
The method "to abolish all existing welfare systems and to unitize them with basic income" is very simple, it makes it unnecessary for multiple government agencies to reduce salaries for many bureaucrats. However, there is also the possibility that there are many people who will be driven to a situation that is in a more difficult situation than before, and that welfare other than basic income will be necessary as well.
In addition, it is also possible to impose tax on people with particularly high incomes. In the United States it is said that the wealthy few% of people are benefiting from economic growth.
At the present time that the economic disparity became too large, there are people who claim that profits should be distributed more equally for social peace.
The possibility of taxation on money movement and land, emissions of carbon dioxide and robots is discussed.
Such basic income does not require any high cost guarantee. Survey results that basic income of 110,000 yen a month can raise GDP by 12% in 8 years has been announced.
It is because poor people start to consume more and the demand as a whole increases.
In addition, those who are doing business that people dislikes against their own will also be able to negotiate with employers to improve salary and work environment if employment is guaranteed with basic income .
In one survey, it is calculated that an economic benefit of 1.21 dollars (about 137 yen) per person will appear in the domestic economy if an extra $ 1 (about 113 yen) salary is paid to an American employee It is. Meanwhile, one dollar paid to high-income people contributes only 39 cents (44 yen) to the domestic economy.
Even if basic income is introduced, wealthy people and poor people will continue to exist.
However, anxiety, suffering, panic, etc. surrounding many people ... ...
It can be solved by improving the lives of poor citizens. Basic income is also a smart economic strategy.
On the other hand, there are people who desire not only "minimum life guarantee" but also basic life as a middle income family life. When excluding financial obstacles, this idea is also a challenge to "How we make society".
By earning money people join society and the amount of money earned determines your social status. However, in order to earn a lot of money people also spend a lot of time not to be interested.
According to a survey in 2016, about 33% of US employees are passionate about work, 16% feel miserable, the remaining 51% say "just put the body in the workplace It is said that it was in the state of "only putting on."
However, work gives us "what to do", enhances motivation, encounters new friends and partners, and enhances social status.
Many people are given meanings by work. How this situation changes with the introduction of basic income is one concern.
Also, if you convert your welfare system to a single system with basic income, there is concern that funds will be cut more easily than when there are multiple systems. further,PopulistIt may be possible to use the system of basic income to gain power.
And also remember that basic income does not bring about equality in all circumstances. In the rural areas you can borrow a good room, but if you are a city with high rent or high price, you may not be able to live adequate living even if you earn 1000 dollars.
Therefore, it is considered that only wealthy people remain in the city, poor people go to the provinces, and the gap between rich and poor will expand.
Of course some people may feel a threat to the concept of "work is not necessary to survive".
Whether or not the idea of basic income is superior is not yet concluded as of 2017, and it is a place that needs surveys and large-scale experiments. And what kind of basic income is necessary and what we should cut down for that is necessary. However, its potential is very large, it is possible to eradicate poverty and to make people live better.
in Video, Posted by logq_fa