Why should we introduce "Basic income" why you can get money without working?
By401 (K) 2012
To periodically pay unconditionally the amount of cash that the government needs to send a minimum life to all citizens is "Basic incomeIt is the idea of. At the World Economic Forum held from Tuesday, January 17, 2017, discussions are being held on basic income and "Why should countries introduce basic income?Scott SantensHe is speaking.
Why we should all have a basic income | World Economic Forum
◆ If you do a basic income in a country with a population of 100
Suppose there is "A country" where there are 100 citizens who are not doing basic income. In A country there are only 80 jobs per 100 citizens. Half of the workforce is satisfied with my work, but the other half continue to work as "I'm better than my job" while thinking that "I am not suitable for work". And, 10 out of 20 people who do not have work think "I want to work", but because the frame of work is buried by the person who thinks "I do not want to work", it is important to work even if I want to work can not.
Basic income may be a means to solve the above mechanism. People who think that they do not want to work can refuse their jobs from work environment and wages, and people who think "I want to work" will be attached to empty posts if they have guaranteed the minimum life. Also, if you are in need of money, workers can not help but endure work, but if life is guaranteed, workers will have room to negotiate with employers.
In Country B, which carries out basic income, the condition "the number of work for 100 people is 80" is the same as in country A. However, since 40 people who do not want to work can turn their backs on the labor market, 50 people wanting to work can definitely get jobs. Also, since 50 workers can afford to have money, negotiate with employers, it is possible to create a better working environment. And forty people who turned their back on the labor market can start up startups.
◆ What is the cost of basic income?
For example, suppose that you pay a basic income of 12,000 dollars a year (about 1.4 million yen) to all living adults in the United States and 4000 dollars a year (about 450,000 yen) to children. At this time, the necessary amount will not be 3 trillion dollars (about 340 trillion yen) which is the total amount of basic income for the people. If a person to whom basic income is paid is paying tax of 450,000 yen per year, the basic income actually obtained will be 1,400,000 yen minus 450,000 yen 950,000 yen. If the tax paid is 2.3 million yen per year, it can be said that the basic income is minus 900,000 yen. If you calculate in this way, it will be necessary to implement the basic income of 340 trillion yen, which is expected to be about 90 billion dollars (about 100 trillion yen), which is 30% of that.
The estimate above is for the case of introducing basic income as a completely new independent system, and its amount will change when combined with the existing tax credit and security mechanism.
Many elderly people living in the United States already have something like "basic income" through the social security system. Therefore, elderly people can choose either social security system or basic income or apply basic income only partially. By doing so, basic income of 100 trillion yen can be reduced to 25 trillion yen without reducing the money that elderly people can obtain now. Meanwhile, the current food and nutrition support program ($ 108 billion / about 12,255.2 billion yen), wage subsidy (72 billion dollars / about 8 trillion 168.8 billion yen), child tax credit (56 billion dollars / 6 trillion 3535 Together with the basic income system, such as temporary subsidies (17 billion dollars / about 1.9 trillion yen) for family members, interest margin deductions (70 billion dollars / 7 trillion 941 billion yen / year) I should say that I should.
Although the expense will differ depending on how to design basic income, if we think about as above, the tax income that the US should increase for basic income will be less than 100 billion dollars (about 11.4 trillion yen) It is seen to be.
In America, the cost to support people with insufficient incomes has increased, which is pressing the budget for healthcare systems, criminal justice systems, educational institutions, etc. The integration of existing systems with the basic income scheme has the potential to make these systems better at a budget of a billion dollars.
The basic income scheme of "to provide a certain amount of money to everyone" imposes a lot of tax on those who earn a lot of money, while at the same time they pay much less money than their earnings, At first glance it may seem like a wasteful system. However, the basic income is like a seat belt in driving. Seatbelts may look unnecessary for good drivers, but not all accidents are caused by rough drivers of driving. Because accidents can happen to anyone by occasion and occasion, we decide to attach seat belts individually to "need this person for seatbelts" and "need for this person", not to reduce costs Even though it seems to be a waste of money, the seatbelt can be attached to every car.
◆ Will Basic Income rob the willingness to work?
There is also the opinion that basic income robs people's willingness to work and interferes with working, but even in the world where basic income has been introduced, people can seek a better life by income as a consideration for work Possible. What is guaranteed is the minimum income required for daily living, and you can work better with the full time part time according to the form of life you want and earn income for better living. Rather, basic income is to eliminate the "disturbance to work" that the existing welfare system created.
Research on motivation done in the past has shown that the reward of money works well in mechanical work, but it does not make a good motivation for creative work. Given that many researchers anticipate that in the future, mechanical work is expected to be carried out by robots and creative work is left to human beings, motivation is not money but "goal" setting .
According to Gallup, which carries out public opinion survey, 13% said that when I look at the world, I feel that my job is for myself. 70% of workers in the United States feel that work does not match themselves, and losses due to a decline in productivity are expected to rise to 500 billion dollars annually (about 60 trillion yen).
When a basic income is realized, it will be necessary to increase the choices of labor markets and make employers more attractive to workers. People are more likely to move their jobs, they are more likely to enter the university again, making it easier to start a business. In addition, as robots and artificial intelligence develop, simple work becomes a role of machines, so the job of "machine is cheaper" was born, and wages of work done by humans will rise.
Experiments of basic income are actually conducted in various cities, but in experiments conducted in a village with Namibia located in the southwestern part of AfricaThe crime rate decreases by 42%, the number of poor households decreases, and the number of people who start business on their own increasesThere are reports of changes such as. Of course, basic income is not a sure way to solve the problem, but it is the idea of basic income that human beings can prosper if we make an economic foundation that people can live with peace of mind.
in Note, Posted by logq_fa