This is the work technique of NASA style, "Rule 100 that Project Manager should Protect" will be released
ByMATEUS_ 27: 24 & 25
Duties that have comprehensive responsibility in the planning and execution of the projectProject managerIt is called NASA'sGoddard Space Flight CenterOver 100 years, Jr. Mr. Jerry Madden, a deputy supervisor, has released 100 rules that can be said to be "knowledge as a project manager" collected from sources of unknown sources in a PDF file. It is not only a project manager but also a rule that seems to be very useful for people who oversee work and groups.
Microsoft Word - Nasa Hundred Rules.doc - Nasa - Hundred - Rules - for - Project - Managers.pdf
◆ Project Manager
Project managers should visit government officials and dealers who have made something for their project so far and be aware of the project managers and teams of the other parties. To visit directly and see the situation is the best way to show that you are interested in the work of the other party and you can build a relationship of trust.
The project manager grasps what kind of salary system the contracted company is, what kind of financial system it has, what kind of culture and company culture are like, "What is the motivation of the merchants?" You must know about it.
The management tools have changed, but the fundamental principle has not changed from long ago. Just find the right people to work and open the way for them.
Please do deal fairly regardless of who you are. Because the universe is not a "huge playground," the members who work do not change more than they think. You should be in contact with someone you respect more than those who hate you.
Even those who have disadvantages, sneaky things, or are extremely disliked, can be project managers regardless of gender. But people who do not have souls, people who postpones work, people who can not decide, can not be.
A good project manager is a person who is willing to fail and is waiting for the next task. It is not always the project management that it is stable.
The new manager faces a place where "everybody wants to solve their problem". It is a scene that seems to have a headache as to what I can not do for myself, but from an old manager, "Please resolve my own problem yourself, because you are hiring you for that," says from senior management It is place.
Early work is not always good. It is necessary to understand what kind of results your actions will take with a lot of time.
When you stand in a position above a person, even if you do not know how to do a job, you must know "what you want to do". If you do not know, understanding your hopes and expectations. A blind leader tends to enter the circle.
I can not necessarily say that a successful manager is excellent and a failing manager is incompetent. Luck is involved in success and failure, but good luck smiles at a capable manager who works diligently.
Never stop retaliation for those who neglected the project. Retaliation does not produce good results, but it reduces you to the same level as your opponent. On the contrary, sometimes I finally leave scars on the project.
Stick to your position and do not become selfish. Especially when you are told that "You are wrong" from your subordinate, you need attention. A member of the project should develop an attitude that can say "Manager's decision is wrong."
When a system engineer or a financial administrator becomes a manager, you may become a surgeon trying to perform your own surgery yourself.
The success of the majority of managers is built on the skills and patience of the staff.
◆ Initial work
The seeds of the problem are from the initial stage, and the problems of the project and the evaluation of failed projects may be at the starting point. Let's take it that one of the most important parts of the project is the beginning of work.
Good communication and "early warning" are necessary to cooperate. This means that plan changes are in the early stages or even in rumors that they are ready to tell partners. A project manager that tells the partner after the situation enters the final stage can not be said to be "sincere," and it will be treated as a part by partners.
To understand personal problems and technical problems, it is best to talk with the right people. Lack of proper level of conversation is fatal.
Many of the meetings are held in English, but some people do not speak English as their mother tongue. It is important to have a conversation so that there is no misunderstanding what is being said.
We can not talk about not being able to understand the local language in managing an area. Culture is essential for modern managers, and there are many courses to learn about communication methods and so on, so please understand what is spoken and written.
It is impossible to monitor everything. It is "people" that the manager monitors, and they need to inform them that "the manager is not admitting in an odd job."
Some old managers prioritize greed over work. However, recent managers tend to be more concerned about shape than contents. Please look at things from two perspectives on what is right.
What is important to make a good product is not any book reviews or materials, excellent technicians, excellent inspectors, and a few bosses.
People have the root of the problem, but it is rare for people to admit it. In order to know what is the weak point of reality, please know the people working in the project.
Please note that people with workaholics may get damaged in a short time. Excessive burden burns out people, but it is very difficult to decide what is "excessive". Let's make sure that the workload of the worker does not exceed 1.5 times the usual 1.25 times and get a sufficient holiday.
Please make internal support the lowest level.
Please tell them that they will be transferred to people who do not see anything, not asking anything, or do not analyze.
Personal time is very important. Please understand the value of others' time as a careful manager. Manager's job is to protect staff from unnecessary work.
Managers who never try to help just by monitoring the status of their work do not seem to understand what is going on. The key to excellence is to participate.
In order to raise motivation to work, it is useful not only to allocate a good work but also sometimes praise and give a prize.
It is a sign of incompetence to show off a job.
In the rare occasion when specialty field "can work only one person". These people should be dealt with carefully, but please leave the job and let me finish the work as soon as possible. When someone else is in charge, it will take twice to three times more time, and the finish will be below the standard.
There are reasons for people to do something. Many people are planning to do a good job and the problem of those who do not do good jobs may not understand "what is desired".
When there is a problem that can not be solved without borrowing someone else's power, you should suggest to lend it to people.
◆ Review and report
A project evaluator exists at NASA, and a system of evaluation has been established. Since the system will continue to exist in the future, please find a way to make maximum use and work advantageously.
Although the number of reviews has increased, information is not inherited. With that in mind, once you have created a set of presentation materials, you only need to shuffle the contents and it is OK.
As trust is on, do not try to hide something from the evaluator. It is important to expose everything whether there are holes or rash, but not excuse. Present only the facts.
Evaluation from the outside is done at the worst possible timing as much as possible. Therefore, it is important to update the data every day so that you can respond instantly. If you do not do it, it will cause a dismissal.
Do not do things like lowering the staff's value, such as withdrawing work decisions at citizen meetings. Even if you instruct the change, please do not take responsibility for what was done away from the staff.
Evaluation is neither for evaluation nor for evaluator. If the evaluated person does not learn anything from it, that evaluation fails.
According to a study, a meeting with more than 12 participants says some people will waste time. Participants in work meetings should be set to six people and meetings when more people participate should aim at communicating information.
The amount of evaluation and reporting is inversely proportional to the degree that senior management understands the project. In other words, it means that reports and evaluation from the outside are necessary so that the project is not understood. In an environment where there are average bosses who are not familiar with the activities of the project, it is necessary to prepare simple and clear data about "understandable by monkeys".
It is a well-known fact that managers relying solely on paperwork, such as activity reports, fail.
A document does not replace knowledge. Thinking about what happened at the work site, it is knowledge to make suggestions, static documents are rapidly left behind from the times.
Do not expect to shorten the annual report just because you are reporting monthly. If the management understands the monthly work, the annual report is unnecessary in the first place.
There are thousands of projects and senior executives need to know hundreds of projects. Abbreviations should be abbreviated unless it is aimed at confusing the other.
Rather than fighting about the need for ridiculous documents, it is often that it is easier to make that idiotic document. Only dispute about global issues that save future work.
About dealers and construction
Monitoring of merchants is not a manager's job, but managers need to take overall responsibility. At scenes where we pay bonuses, people at the government side, such as managers, should make efforts to confirm that the merchants are working on schedule and doing a good job. If the business of the contractor does not go well, eventually the results of the project manager will be low.
Bonus is a convenient tool for controlling both sides because it is possible to recognize the state of the project and management skills of both the trader and the government by grading the grades in a visible way. The result isProject ManagementIt should be confirmed using the system (PMS), but if the grades are consistently bad, senior management will intervene to reveal the reasons, even if the actual score does not match the actual score , Senior executives are moving and it is necessary to think about the reason.
It is very important for the manager on the government side that the work motivation of the worker who is doing the construction is not wanting to buy a car made by an unhappy worker or an airplane made by a motivated engineer. Project managers should play the role of motivating people involved in the project.
It is a good thing to get in touch with the dealer with familiarity, but becoming a merchant's friend is extremely dangerous in terms of objectivity.
Contractors tend to have 1: 1 contact with your staff. Do not forget that at least one person loses the staff every year.
Contractors tend to evaluate the people of the partner's government officials and allocate personnel to the project based on the evaluation. Therefore, when they are evaluated as "this manager is a manuke", inferior talent will be sent to the project.
"Customers are always right" is a basic rule, but if you neglect all the plans of the trader and push your way forward, the cost will increase. Therefore, the basic principle is "Do not change the merchant's plan unless it is too costly or defective."
The project manager's job is to please our customers. Make sure that those who work together know that they do not compliment, move according to schedule and expense and make good products make good products, please exclude them otherwise.
◆ Engineers and scientists
ByUniversity of Michigan School of Natural Resources & Environment
As engineers prefer puzzles and mazes, excessive engineering is a common occurrence. Please let them keep a simple design.
As engineers are optimistic by nature, I do not notice that trouble is happening. Read signs of trouble by paying attention to cost reduction and schedule change.
Considering the contractor and developers, the project requires 5 to 10 system engineers. This is a powerful person to solve the problem.
Because many managers are contracting for projects, I forget that scientists are customers and can access senior managers more easily than me.
Scientists are reasonable. If they believe that "managers tell the truth" including disadvantageous facts such as "the plan is scaled down" will work together.
In the constantly changing space business, people who are building next generation hardware have never seen hardware of the previous era. Note that the environment of operation changes, and in many cases the person checking the unit does not understand the unit itself or the testing tool.
Many tools will not work as designed by the designer. This is because the design was not good or the designer's intention was not understood, because the specification of the component was not understood.
◆ Components and software
It is a big mistake not to use current technology as typified by computers. However, it is a bigger mistake to forget that computers imitate human thought.
Majority of cost calculation of flight mission · Quality control · Confirmation procedure ·Scope CreekNow that the software now takes care of all the parameters of the hardware, and the function has been added, it is very difficult to determine that "there is no defect". Please move the basic system first and then add options. As a measure for emergency measures, even if you are confident that the latest version will work, please keep the old version.
Knowledge is often revised by tests and simulations, but computers may sometimes leave hidden defects due to lack of input data etc.
In the past, engineers had hands-on experience, and engineers understood how the electronic devices are moving and what they are going to do. But now it is computer that knows it with confidence.
◆ Senior management · program office etc.
Please ask when you have doubts about the actions of senior management and you should know the reasons. An amazing answer comes back.
Please know your management. Some senior managers like jokes, others like only jokes they say.
Please remember that it is the boss who has the decision right. If you think that the boss is wrong you should tell it, but if the boss did not change the decision even if it tells, follow the boss's decision and do your best to succeed.
Do not let the administrator decide what you can decide yourself.
Project managers and program managers should work like teams. The program manager is a supporter of the project manager at NASA headquarters and a person who helps success.
In the program, please know who decides. It may be one of administrator, deputy secretary, or scientist, but please do communicate anywhere in any place.
◆ Program plan · Budget formation · Estimate
Today, we will push the latest technology, adjust to be within the budget, take risks, try to do projects in time so as not to fail. If you keep a pre-established schedule and a budget plan for some reason these are done as if there is no contradiction.
Many projects done in the past exceeded the schedule for poor prediction rather than failure. It will cost money to make better forecasts, but it will raise NASA's reputation. A better evaluation is essential in the current environment.
All problems will eventually be resolved. Please arrange a schedule that you can afford in case of emergency. Otherwise you will have another manager in your position in the next project.
Since past NASA has expanded the limits of science and technology, the projectScope creepI did not mind even if I overrun or do it. On the other hand, the scope of the new NASA is a fatal mistake since all projects can be said to be fixed prices.
Please know the talent at the center where you are working and the talent at other centers. Normally, even if the center is different, it will surprisingly help just by calling out.
In addition to the budget information that the president brought up in Congress there is no information to keep secret. So please do not keep the information top secret. As anyone who can see the whole picture is easy to move, we try not to hide the information.
NASA's program competes to get the budget, but it does not attack each other, it sells its strengths.
"Next year" of "getting a sufficient budget next year" is like 50 years of your career if you say it.
Make sure who you are and what customers want. When I change important points I will check with customers.
◆ NASA Business Management Instructions
Another NASA staff in the same position as NASA's business administration instructions is written. If there is something you do not understand why, please challenge the instructions. It is also possible to destroy or rewrite instructions.
Incorrect decisions made earlier can be compensated, but the correct decision delayed can not correct the initial mistake.
Sometimes it is best to not do anything. If the project manager always has to solve someone's problem, it is the same as working for "someone" anymore. There are many situations where you only need to listen to stories.
Do not make decisions by looking at illustrations. To obtain real information such as hardware and design drawings. A lot of time waste comes from people trying to fix the facts in the illustrations to explain the principle.
◆ Professional Ethics and Integrity
"Good faith" means that your subordinates trust yourself.
It is always important to remember "Who is working under who" when you are about to finish your job in a hurry. Pushing down the weakness of your boss does not benefit you in the long run.
◆ Project management and teamwork
Team work is required to lead the project to success. A coach, not a boss, is in many teams, but the coach must always call for play.
Please do not make assumption that "Someone knows" or "Someone is doing it without asking". In stressful work, obvious things may be overlooked or ignored.
People who say that "likes and dislikes can not be said about picking up objects" does not understand project management. In many cases it's better to rely on luck than to relying on people like those mentioned above.
It is commonplace for team members with lack of information to reach the wrong conclusion, as it is difficult to identify somewhere in the puzzle, although there is only one piece.
Please do not forget that there is work to be done for President, Congress, Administrative Budget Bureau, NASA Headquarters, Senior Center Management, Customer, All people. The job of the project manager is to please them all.
◆ How to avoid failure · How to handle
What you should do when you fail,
A: Make a timeline of what has happened and write everything including what is normal.
B: Write down the facts you know and check any ideas on the facts.
C: Do not discard data until you know the truth.
D: Do not jump to the result, make sure that explanation is made that the deviation from normal. Do not forget that the wrong conclusion will be the beginning of the next failure.
E: To know when to stop.
Failure is a class for the future, and what will work is also a lesson. Please reproduce who did it.
Errors are fine, but failure is a problem. Since failing to recover errors is a failure, when creating a high-risk item or making a high-risk plan, take measures against accidental accident and prepare another approach.
There are no projects that have been tested and certified so far and have not had any problems. Only time and preparation will be a safety device to the problem.
Experience is good, but the experiment is superior. "Knowing something" is not "to prove it".
To succeed you need to be afraid of failures, but you also have to learn techniques to recover. Knowing people who will help is one of the techniques.
One of the advantages NASA had earlier was that everyone knew that the fact that I thought was natural was wrong.
In hardwareRedundancyIs fiction, and if one fails, the other is supposed to fail. Please bear in mind that "Hardware is the only thing in the build, and the mission needs to succeed."
Please do not make excuses and show me the plan of action to take next.
in Note, Posted by logq_fa