What is the explanation that the "lie" of a culinary scientist who has been believed for many years as "modern people take 44% more calories compared to the past?"


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In 2009, research that insisted on the recipe collection which has been published since 1936 was announced in that "American meals have increased calories per meal compared to the past". This research was often used in the context of "poverty in the American diet" and "the background of the spread of obesity", but in recent years it was revealed that there was a problem with the research method It is.

The Strange, Uplifting Tale of "Joy of Cooking" Versus the Food Scientist | The New Yorker
https://www.newyorker.com/culture/annals-of-gastronomy/the-strange-uplifting-tale-of-joy-of-cooking-versus-the-food-scientist


Ilma Rombauer published in 1936 "Joy of Cooking(Cooking pleasure) "is a cookbook with 450 recipes gathered from friends and family, not only recipes, but also digression notes on menu preparation, preparation, nutrition, cooking enjoyment etc. It has become one. This book is widely popular to be said to have one book in the US in the United States, now the eighth edition has been published and the number of recipes has reached thousands. In the 1997 edition, it was published in a new form that popular chefs and food writers add up, but since the 2006 edition they have returned to a classical style again.


However, in 2009, research results were announced pointing out that "Joy of Cooking is overkill" by Brian Wansink, professor of consumer behavior and nutrition science. In the research, Mr. Wangsink et al. Conducted an experiment on the recipe described in each version of The Joy of Cooking, which had been published since 1936, and "As the number of calories of recipes has increased by 44%," I concluded. The professors said that he was conducting the investigation with the hypothesis that there should be reasons other than eating out why obesity is spreading.


Mr. John Becker, who is the grandson of Ilma Rombauer and who manages the recipe, received the announcement of Mr. Wangsink et al., "There is a problem with Mr. One Sink's research method" and " It is attentive to warning about "It is small." In Joy of Cooking there are 4500 recipes, but Mr. Wansink and others are only doing experiments on 18 recipes, and the total number of samples was only 0.4%. On the other hand, the recipe has been rewritten many times, Megan Scott et al., Mr. Becker's wife said, "Mr. Wansink and others may be correct, there is a possibility that the calorie per meal per recipe is increasing So I avoided completely denying Mr. Wansink and others' assertions.

Joy of Cooking side did not make a big counterattack, then Mr. Wansink and others created animation etc using research results. The claim that "people are taking 44% more calories" has come to appear frequently in the context of "general wisdom concerning obesity" "poor dietary habit of the United States". On that occasion, Mr. Wangsink explained that "only 18 recipes were posted in succession since it was published in 1936," according to Mr. Wansink. Therefore, Mr. Becker described thousands of recipes published in Joy of Cooking in the ninth edition scheduled to be published in 2019 in a encyclopediasmatic manner, which recipe has been handed down to the next edition We are planning to be able to compare what we did. Also, Mr. Becker started his own investigation and tried to disprove Mr. Wansink and others.

And in February 2018, is a reporter of BuzzfeedStephanie M. LeeMr. exposes an exposure article on Mr. Wansink and his research.

Here's How Cornell Scientist Brian Wansink Turned Shoddy Data Into Viral Studies About How We Eat
https://www.buzzfeed.com/stephaniemlee/brian-wansink-cornell-p-hacking


In scientific research, researchers first make hypotheses, experiment and make data to judge whether the hypothesis is correct or not. However, at Cornell University where Mr. Wansink belongsFood and Brand LabFrom the staff interview and internal e-mail, Mr. Sunskun regularly tells the staff "to operate the data set to find the pattern", it was doing so-called "p value hacking", and the conclusion Based on reverse engineering based on the discovery that it was hypothesizing. In the e-mail sent by Mr. Wansink to the researcher in 2013, contents saying "Please think about all the ways to cut data" was written, and in another study, the staff was asked to squeeze blood from this stone It used to use the expression ". Mr. One Sink's assistant at the lab says to Mr. Lee, "He tried to argue in the dissertation that he is not true." Mr. Lee is not the first time to suspect Mr. Wansink's research, including Lee's past history, Mr. Lee said, "Mr. One Sync and the cooperators of Food and Brand Lab use illegal data as headlines We have produced and presented the "lessons learned" to shine. "

Meanwhile, Mr. Becker tracks the change in calories of hundreds of Joy of Cooking recipes and sends the findings to behavioral scientistsJames HeatherI was sending it to several researchers including Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Ms. Mr. Heather is a person who is conducting an activity of re-analyzing the "talk is too good" research published by media-friendly researchers. We have developed the tool "S.P.R.I.T.E." for reconstructing the dataset from the results of published papers and forced to withdraw or modify numerous academic papers including Mr. One Sink's paper over the past few years.

According to Mr. Heather, because the nutrients etc. are decided from the material and quantity of the recipe, the problem in the research which claims that "Joy of Cooking is excessive" is not "manipulation of data" but "calculation method" . And this time it was not "incorrect calculation", but "there is no way to calculate correctly in the first place" is a problem.

In the study of Mr. Wansink et al., The calorie of the recipe is calculated as "per meal", but in books the amount of "one meal" has not been calculated for 10 recipes out of 18 recipes. The recipe for chocolate cake is a material for making "one chocolate cake", but it is unknown how much of it is for one person. Mr. Heather explains that such a technique is particularly problematic when the number of samples is small. In addition, Mr. Wansink said that "I compare recipes with the same name in different books of the edition", but in reality there were cases where recipes that are completely different in content were compared.

In response to The New Yorker's interview, Mr. Wansink admits that the research team faces a difficult task while arguing that "this was a very good method" about his research method. In addition, when telling that Mr. Becker and Mr. Heather found that there is a flaw in the basis of the research results, "The research results presented are shortened versions of a very long complete version" Although the key element has been deleted, it is said that it can not remember which element it was.


Research focusing on "what people are eating" is very difficult, and in 2016 Epidemiologist Ben Gold and Acer said that in order to conduct an ideal study "All the subjects need to be in the Ori There is no way to force all 500 subjects to eat fruits and vegetables. " Also, since calories will vary depending on how they are cooked and how much they bite, it is true that the fat is taken as fat animal fat "and" the only way to get animal fat is to do " It is said that research results are to be born.

in Junk Food, Posted by logq_fa