What was the longest computer ever built "SAGE" ever built?

Ultra large computer system created to detect, track and intercept bombers equipped with Soviet troops' atomic bombs invading mainly North America from the 1950s to the 1980s,Semi-automatic air defense control organization(Semi-Automatic Ground Environment)",For short"SAGE"is.

The largest computer ever built | Locklin on science

This is an appearance, no window.

In the first place, why is such a huge system required, until it detects that a bomber has invaded, take off the interceptor, manually calculate the interception point by human power, then induce by radio However, this is too late, especially if it gets delayed when it is invaded with low sky, and in case the opponent was a jet bomber, it has to respond in just a few minutes, the nucleus When assuming an attack, it was in a condition equal to unprotected too much.

Also, when all the radar facilities were flooded with detection reports, it was also predicted that operators who fielded it would become overloaded with large reports and could not intercept them.

In order to solve these problems, there is only a fully automated system, so for this purpose also concentrating detection from all radar facilities on one computer, the operator instructs the interception target and interception method to the computer to speed up all communication , We needed a system that intercepts in real time.

As a result, it became the first computer in the world to be connected to the network with the world's first modem to connect with the radar facilities here and there to cover all the mainland of the United States by the time the Internet was not yet.

Moreover, it is equipped with the first CRT monitor, and by touching the target on the monitor with a light pen called light gun, it is possible to give information or give instructions of attack, and the world's first touch screen interface But it was there.

Where I am usingLike this

Furthermore, the world's first magneticCore memoryIt was also the first computer in the world to increase real-time performance by using, and enable simultaneous use of up to 150 people.

The system consists of a total of 27 computers, each computer60,000 vacuum tubes· 175,000 diodes · 12,000 newest transistors are used and hundreds of vacuum tubes are exchanged every day.

This constitutes SAGEAN / FSQ-7

Although the vacuum tube actually only fails one hour per hour, the diagnostic program exchanged a dangerous vacuum tube as a precautionary measure, "Each center has a staff specialized in tube replacement, a shopping cart full of replacement parts I was going back and forth in the machine by pushing. "

By withdrawing a white handleVacuum tube clogged rackThat's why I was exchanging it outside

MoreoverDuplex system as a wholeAnd the spare system was in a hot standby state in which power is always on and running, so SAGE goes down only about 2 or 3 hours per year.

Ultimately SAGE began operating in 1958 and will continue to operate until 1984, using the plan totaling $ 8 billion (about 755 billion yen) to $ 12 billion (1,013.1 billion yen), nuclear bomb development It cost more than Manhattan's plan.

There are more earth simulators than SAGE in the bottom area, but it is expected to be the largest in the history as a single processor system and will not be broken in the future.

You can watch the movie on how this SAGE actually moved on YouTube, from hereOperating manualIt is possible to read, design and manufacture are responsible for IBM and contribute to the IBM leap later.

Cold War Computing - The SAGE System - YouTube

In addition, the following IBM movies are also spectacular.

On Guard! The Story of SAGE: IBM Corporation, Military Products Division: Free Download & amp; Streaming: Internet Archive

in Hardware,   Video, Posted by darkhorse