Five diagrams that clearly show the problems surrounding semiconductors, such as 'Why are there shortages of semiconductors?'


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Semiconductor companies are responding to the prolonged shortage of semiconductors by building new factories and developing human resources, but it is expected that the shortage of semiconductors will be resolved in the latter half of 2022 at the earliest . The deep roots of semiconductor problems are summarized in five easy-to-understand diagrams by IEEE Spectrum, a magazine published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

These 5 Charts Help Demystify the Global Chip Shortage --IEEE Spectrum

The Global Semiconductor Alliance, organized by semiconductor companies, reports that semiconductor components can travel up to 50,000 km and cross 70 borders between production and delivery to customers. There is. The following is a diagram showing that. First, silicon raw materials and chemicals produced in the United States travel 12,000 km and are brought to Taiwan for processing, and then each process is carried out in countries such as Malaysia (3200 km), Germany (9700 km), and China (7700 km). It will travel a total of 55,400 km before it is delivered to the United States as a finished semiconductor.

'The metaphorical term supply chain doesn't apply to semiconductors,' said George Calhoun, director of the Center for Financial Industry Information at Stevens Institute of Technology in New York. However, trying to manufacture semiconductors in the United States alone would cost 10 years and 1 trillion dollars (about 115 trillion yen), and it is estimated that semiconductor prices will rise by up to 65%, so globalization can be avoided. It is said that there is no such thing.

Below is a graph of quarterly semiconductor manufacturing equipment utilization. According to IEEE Russell Harrison, semiconductor factories generally maintain an operating rate of 80% while handling maintenance, equipment updates, and staff transfers. However, as a result of the collapse of the cycle of supply shortage and oversupply due to the increase in demand for semiconductors due to the spread of IoT devices and self-driving cars, the operating rate of semiconductor factories around the world will exceed 90% from the middle of 2020. I have.

The following is a graph showing how many days of semiconductor inventory remains, showing that the median inventory of semiconductor products has decreased from 40 days in 2019 to less than 5 days in 2021. It has been.

The following is a comparison of the market share of each semiconductor field between the United States (yellow bar graph) and China (brown bar graph). The United States is often said to have been robbed of its stock by the Chinese semiconductor industry, but it remains superior in the

value chain fields (third from the left) such as the design and development of new semiconductors, especially R & D expenses. (Fourth) invested 39 billion dollars (about 4.5 trillion yen) to overwhelm China.

Below are the amounts that major semiconductor companies Intel, Texas Instruments, Samsung, and TSMC are investing in expanding their production system in the United States (left) and semiconductors from the US government based on the America COMPETES Act . It is a figure comparing the support money for industry (right). The U.S. government is spending $ 52 billion (about 6 trillion yen) on the semiconductor industry, which exceeds the amount financed by the government at the time of the GM collapse in 2009, but the above four companies are nearly double that amount, totaling $ 99 billion. We are planning to invest (about 11.4 trillion yen) in new factory construction projects in Texas, Ohio, and Arizona. Moreover, Calhoun estimates that private investment in semiconductor shortages is expected to exceed $ 850 billion (about 100 trillion yen) in the future.

Regarding the US government's incentives for the semiconductor sector, Mr. Calhoon said, 'I don't think a uniform government approach will lead to effective investment, but even if it is perfectly implemented, government support will be provided. Is a lot of money compared to the investment amount of private companies. '

in Note, Posted by log1l_ks