What are the three important elements to improve the quality of discussions?
A “discussion” in which opinions are expressed logically can result in a conclusion that can be convinced by the participants and an understanding of each other. Luke Zafil, who teaches philosophy at the University of Queensland, Australia, explains the points to improve the quality of discussions.
How to make good arguments at school (and everywhere else)
◆ 1: Rationality
“Rationality” that connects reason and rationale with opinion is an important factor in the discussion, and emphasizing rationality has two purposes. One of them is “to clarify your own thoughts”. Since human beings understand and relate their own thoughts to events around them, being conscious of rationality helps to organize their own thoughts.
The second purpose is to “get others to evaluate my reasoning”. Zafil said, “When you come to the discussion, you need to provide an opportunity to respect your partner so that you can understand your reasoning. It is.
Zafil pointed out that the class of “writing emotional words and writing compelling sentences” in Australia has reduced the quality of student discussions. He argues that students should be taught how to preach grounds and reasoning rather than emotionally.
Mr. Zafil gave an example of `` Write a sentence against same-sex marriage '', `` It's not enough to `` go against public order and morals '', and in order to support the claim, `` What morals about public order and morals are expected to decline '' Reasonable, such as reinforcing the claims “by showing actual or happening in the present or the present day” after discussing with a focus on “how citizens suffer when morality falls” The argument is important. '
◆ 2: Consideration
Zafil mentioned “caring” as “the most overlooked point in the discussion”. “Understanding the core part of the other party's opinion” is important in discussions, but some people enjoy watching the other party struggling to put their opinions together.
Mr. Zafil accused such an act, `` Everyone may fail to state his opinion clearly or make a consistent assertion, and even if it is worth noting a coherent opinion It should be generous in interpreting what others have said. '
As an example, when someone announces that “immigrants in Australia cause violent crimes or take jobs away,” instead of returning a response like “racist”, interpret them with compassion. Mr. Zafil argues that the discussion should be focused on whether employment of family members of the discussion participants is actually secured or what the security of experience is.
◆ 3: Dainism
“Cautious” is the principle that no matter how correct the theory is, there is a possibility that it will be proved in the future. Even adults find it difficult to admit that they are wrong, but Zafil argues that accepting mistakes is especially important for learning.
One of the benefits that can be gained by accepting mistakes is Zafil's “improving learning motivation”. According to Mr. Zafil, research shows that children's willingness to participate will be much higher if they are willing to do the first failure. Zafil says, “Failure and learning are related.”
Another merit of recognizing the mistake that Zafil mentioned is that if you don't have the prejudice that 'this result is correct', it is likely to be a meaningful research result .
As an example of teaching students to acknowledge mistakes, Zafil mentions that they don't have to do homework. As we continue this discussion, we will separate “your own opinions” such as “I hate homework” and “practical benefits gained by doing homework” such as “I will be able to enter a better university”. You need to think about it. As a result, Zafil explains that he comes to realize that there is a limit to his own opinions.
Mr. Zafil recommends a discussion practice named “Goldbowl” to improve the quality of discussion.
In the “fishbowl”, students are divided into two groups, and the group that sits in a circle is surrounded by the remaining groups. The inner group freely discusses the agenda, and the outer group listens to the discussion and looks for errors in the opinions of those sitting in front of them. At the end of the discussion, the outer group will comment on “why the theory of the person I was responsible for was reasonable”. After that, the inner group will comment on “Is there any compassion in pointing out” to the criticism of the outer group.
According to Zafil, this training method can learn all three points that enhance the quality of the discussion. Students who participated in the “fishbowl” will be able to realize that “everyone is wrong” by seeing other people point out mistakes.
Zafil said, “It is a natural desire to think“ I want to win ”and“ I want you to hear. ”However, for children,“ To make a discussion that is valuable to everyone ”rather than“ To win a discussion ”. Should be taught that is important. '
in Note, Posted by darkhorse_log