Experts from space biology and cosmology talk about the theme of 'Does extraterrestrial life exist?' With the 'miracle of the earth'
It is said that there are as many as 100 billion stars in our solar system to which our Earth belongs and furthermore there are 2 trillion galaxies in the entire universe. It is controversial whether there is a life with advanced intelligence similar to that of the Earth. Mr. Steven Webb, a scholar who wrote in his book " 50 Reasons Only the Earthlings Discovered in the Wide Universe - Fermi's Paradox ", from the viewpoint that human beings exist on the earth is a miracle in the miracle, the altitude in the universe I talk about the existence of life in TED.
Where are all the aliens? | Stephen Webb - YouTube
Mr. Webb seems to have seen UFOs when I was nine years old. When I saw a silver disk floating on my house I could not hide my excitement and told the adults in my house that it was disappointing that skeptical answers came back . After that, when an adult Webb drinks in a pub, a man named "I saw UFO!" Appeared, but adult webbrow came close to men and explained "what you saw Let's do it calmly, "he said.
"The human brain is easy to be cheated," Webb said. Information on UFOs and aliens is flooding in the world, but it says that the brain misinterpretes information entered from the eye.
Mr. Webb who has talked with many scientists about the theme of "Does the alien exist?" The result was that "there is no matching opinion". Mr. Frank Drake of the American astronomer started a plan to search for radio waves from aliens in the 1960's, but as of August 2018, nothing has been found.
There are countless stars in the universe. And the age of the universe is said to be 13.8 billion years old. Webb said that there are "four barriers" in the existence of extraterrestrial life other than human beings in the universe with such infinite extent.
The first barrier is "Habitability". To have the same type of life as the Earth, it is essential that there is hard crust and liquid water and the atmosphere is maintained at an appropriate temperature. This environment must have a planet in a moderate range "Habitable zone" from a star in the center of the planetary system.
When it is confirmed that the planet " Proxima Centauri b " exists in the habitable zone of the red dwarf star "Proxima Centauri" located 4.2 light years away from the earth in 2016, astronomy The world was enveloped by great excitement.
It turned out that there are planets that can exist life with environment similar to Earth near Earth - GIGAZINE
As of the end of July 2018, 55 planets exist in the same habitable zone as confirmed . However, as not every planet has the same environment as the Earth, the hurdles where life exists are not low. .
The second barrier is the authenticity of the "pre-occurrence theory" where life is born from non-living substances. The basic composition of living creatures present on the earth is not quite far from the composition of matter in the universe. Amino acids are present in some comets, complex organic molecules in interstellar dust clouds, and water is also known to exist in extra solar systems.
However, because materials are there, they do not necessarily work mutually and change their appearance as primitive organisms. There is a case in which the evolution of living things has started and eventually evolved to the creatures of "human" eventually exist on this earth, but the world where no matter what happens will not happen to the universe It should exist.
The third barrier is "development of technical civilization". Even if life with intelligence exists, it does not necessarily mean that it always searches for lives other than ours.
Among various theories concerning life, there are things that "human beings already coexist with aliens". According to the 2011 survey, elephants can cooperate and solve the problem. Also, in the 2010 survey it has been made clear that octopuses being confined are able to distinguish people. In addition, in the 2017 study we also know that crows can plan for future events. Even though creatures with relatively high intelligence are in space like these, the probability that they will launch a rocket and aim to other planets is not necessarily high. Also, there is no guarantee that there will be a goal of "space travel" in advance of the evolution of life. Even if life exists, there is a sufficient possibility that it is not accomplished technological development like mankind, but it is a living thing completed by our planet.
Finally, the fourth barrier is "communication skills across the universe". Even if an alien is building a civilization that is similar to humanity, there is a possibility that the interest point of the alien may stay within "the atmosphere" rather than "outside the atmosphere." Also, even if you are considering the existence of other living organisms, you may think that you do not want to risk risking encountering hostile aliens. Even if there is a civilization that avoids communication with other world for some reason, it is certainly nothing.
As mentioned in his book, Mr. Webb advocates the theory that "humans are lonely in space." "However, because there are as many as 1 trillion stars in the galaxy, is there anything wrong with life?", But Webb expects, "According to view," 1 trillion " I do not know whether it is a big figure or not. "
This is a way of thinking that leads to the rare earth hypothesis proposed by Mr. Peter Ward and Mr. Don Braunley in 2000. This hypothesis states that "In the situation of the universe it is extremely rare (= rare) that the environment like the earth is created", and the probability that intellectual life as humanity will appear is extremely low It has been advocated.
One example is the "Giant Impact Theory" that the moon was born as a result of collision of a birth object " Tear " as large as Mars on the newly born earth. It is an imaginary event to the last, the crust of the primitive Earth is blown off by the Giant Impact, Chile released in outer space is reunited and the moon is born Apart from the authenticity of the theory that the moon was born, the moon is It is thought that it plays a very big role in preparing the environment.
Even though the diameter of the moon was several kilometers larger than the current one, it is thought that the appearance of the earth was quite different from the present. Since the earth rotates on the balance with the moon, as the mass of the moon changes, the axis of rotation of the Earth is not stable as it is now, it may have been intensely blurring. Then, the environment of the earth is not stable like the present one, it is thought that it was supposed to be a thing which repeated intense fluctuations.
According to Webb, there are 1 trillion planets in the galaxy, among which the stars that are located in the habitable zone and are likely to be able to live a comfortable environment will be narrowed down to about 1 billion pieces about. In addition, the number of stars that will be fitted with an environment suitable for the life and evolution of life will be narrowed down to one million. Among them, the number of stars that cause the origins of life by repeating the change of organic matter to 1000 pieces. Mr. Webb says that the unicellular organisms born there have changed into multicellular organisms, and the star which becomes a creature with advanced function is limited to only one.
But the story does not end here. As with human beings, the stars where living creatures become available for use are narrowed down to one planet among 1000 galaxies. From there we further invent the machine and need to become sociable creatures in order to produce enough technology to reach other stars. A star with creatures that will explain abstract concepts and talk about rocket shapes, perhaps only one in 1 billion galaxies, may not exist.
In addition, various disasters may fall on the planet. As the meteorite collides with the Yucatan Peninsula and the era of dinosaurs has reached the end, a devastating event sometimes occurs on the planet. It is by no means an exaggeration to say that miracles in miracles survive the event and life will develop new evolution. In this way, perhaps the Earth may have been a miraculous star in one trillion galaxy that could foster only one diverse life.
Mr. Webb who showed the idea of effectively denying the existence of extraterrestrial life form, but at the end I was raised watching the movie "Star Trek" and "Forbidden Planet." And I saw the UFO There is a feeling that I do not want to acknowledge the idea that this universe is lonely, "he says, which makes it feel somewhat unreadable, loneliness.
On top of that, Mr. Webb said, "We are the only species that has cleared the various catastrophic events that occur in the universe, and the only species we can decide our fate ourselves, If we can understand how special it is, how important it is to care about your family and others, and how lucky it is in existence in the universe, mankind will live a little longer It may be possible to continue, and the dreams we have held against the aliens may be what we will accomplish in the future, "he concluded his presentation .
Mr. Webb's book "50 Reasons Which Only the Earthlings Are Missing in a Wide Universe - Fermi's Paradox" is very interesting content, but it is a very interesting content, but added to it and deepened its content "75 Reasons Only the Earthlings Discovered in the Wide Universe" Is also an interesting one that meets intellectual curiosity.
75 reasons only the earthlings are found in the broad universe | Stephen Webb | Books | mail order | Amazon