How to increase the reliability of websites by applying "principle of authority" to UX
Being a leading expert in usability researchJacob NielsenMr. establishedNielsen Norman GroupBut"Principle of authority"The using the UX has published a method of increasing the reliability of the web site.
The Authority Principle
Through experiments conducted by psychologist Leonardo Bickman, "uniform effect" has been confirmed. In 1974, Mr. Bickman cried a pedestrian to a person who wore three patterns of costumes, asked a man to ask "Men who are over there to give 1 cents for parking". The three costumes at this time were "uniform of guardman", "uniform of milk store", "dress of the general public such as sports jacket and necktie". As a result of the experiment, 75% of the pedestrians followed the instructions of the guardman, while 47% followed the milk store and 29% followed the ordinary people's person, 29 It is easy to follow people who seem to have authority / authority ".
Social psychologist Robert B. Chardini also published his book "Weapons of Influence: Why do people move?"I am mentioning the power of" authority "as one of the six principles of influence in" Mr. Chardini's definition of "the principle of authority" is defined as a person who is often in a position with power, that is, a political leader, a representative in law enforcement, a doctor, a lawyer, a professor, and experts in various fields I will point it.
People prefer easier judgment if they show implicitly that "they are in a position with wisdom and power" by wearing uniforms, that is, "can produce better results" by virtue of bias when judging things Humans follow their instructions. This is the same thing as a child believes in parents and teachers' judgment and teaching contents. Even after acquiring the power to doubt as an adult, people tend to trust people such as doctors, lawyers, and scientists over themselves.
This was shown most explicitly by psychologist Stanley MilgramMilgram experimentIt can be said.
In order to approach the psychology of the person responsible for transporting the Jews to the extermination camp, Mr. Milgram divided the people into "student roles" and "teacher roles" and conducted experiments. The subject of this experiment was reported to the subjects of the teacher's role as "seeing the effect of punishment in learning."
In the experiment, subjects who served as teachers were sitting in front of a button that gives an electric shock from a minimum of 15 V to a maximum of 450 V. When a student in another room mistakes a problem, it is instructed to press a button that increases the voltage by 15 V I will. At this time, in fact, electricity was not flowed to the student role, but when the button was pushed, the scream of the student role that had been recorded in advance was supposed to flow, but the teacher role is that the students really I think that I am suffering.
Of course, the subjects of the role of the teacher try to refuse to continue the experiment, but at this time, an "authoritative" Dr. Mr. male wearing a white garment appeared and tells the role of the teacher as follows in an extremely attitude as follows.
"This experiment has to continue with you"
"It is absolutely necessary for you to continue."
"Do not get lost, you should continue"
As a result of the experiment, it is said that the probability that the subject of the teacher role pushing the button to the end has reached 65%. The state of the actual experiment can be seen from the following movie.
Milgram experiment - Jeroen Busscher - YouTube
Milgram experiments show that people tend to rely on authority in making decisions, even though they are contrary to morality. However, in reality people often encounter "a situation requiring judgment" is often not contrary to ethics, listening to the opinions of experts is a great solution as one of the solutions. Especially in areas with high expertise such as financial services · legal services · medical care, people need to make judgments by comparing complex and massive information. And when doing such comparisons on the Internet, users may look for "authority".
According to Nielsen Norman Group, UX professional can increase the reliability of web design by using the authority principle. Specifically, it is said that reliability can be improved by using the following materials.
· Photographs of people who know that they are in an authoritative position such as "lawyer in suit" or "scientist or doctor wearing a white suit"
· It is a symbol of medical scienceAsclepius's caneAnd the symbol of lawJustice scalesSymbols of authority such as
· Good reputation logo
· Exhibitors, citizens and authorities showing support from authorities and quotes
For example, on the website of a law firm's office, you show authority with a photograph of a lawyer wearing a suit at the top of the website, and below that there are pictures of other attorneys along with the working years.
In addition, a logo shows what famous news sites and publishers are paying attention ... ....
By presenting McAfee's logo at the end, it indicates that "this website is protected".
Also, services that plan startupPassion PlannerOn the website of the website, quotes from Business Insider and Amazon Review are posted.
Elena's Home of Finest Filipino FoodsOn the website of the restaurant is the host of the television program at the top of the siteGuy FieriThe photograph of Mr. when he got through the store, below it is the mark of the local recipe award winning the most recently.
Provide regional criminal data to real estate investorsNeighborhoodScoutThe website of the United States appeals that it is "a service used by an authoritative organization" by aligning logos of "authority" like American federal agencies.
Of course, it is necessary to use such UX to the extent that it does not contradict ethics. Even if photos, logos, quotes, etc. are false, even if it is true, even if it is true, "mathematics teaching materials recommended by fashion designers", it can be said that it does not indicate a legitimate evaluation if the relevance is small. Also, considering whether to hide the client's confidentiality agreement by posting a logo should also be considered. If doubts arise in your design, you should ask yourself, "Does the design try to force the user to" disgust me if I do it? "
in Design, Posted by darkhorse_log