"How to read books" that summarizes the tips of reading that obtain the maximum information from a book in a limited time
A nonfiction book which is a reading material for obtaining information, such as textbooks, manuals, journal articles, history books, academic research books, etc., can obtain the necessary information as quickly and easily as possible in a limited time as possible "How to Read a BookThe advice of "University of Michigan School of Information" is summarized.
How to Read a Book, v 5.0
The table of contents of each item of How to Read a Book is as follows.
◆ Read the whole: Reading without not missing a single phrase and not reading everything, paying attention to evidence and evidence will help to understand the overall structure.
◆ Reading time after deciding time: The real world time is limited. Reading after planning exactly how much time you can devote to reading, you can concentrate on reading and challenge reading.
◆ Have a purpose and strategy: If you know "Why are you reading that book", you will be able to better read and enjoy the contents better.
◆ Actively read: It is necessary to avoid only relying only on the author's assertion, reading while exactly verifying the sentences according to his purpose.
◆ Read three timesI read three times for different purposes, "Discovery" for the first time, "Understanding" for the second time, "Make a note" for the third time.
◆ Focus on high information volume: Explain places such as photographs, figures, graphs, headings, which tend to have a high information volume.
◆ PersonalMarkup languageuse: Habit of taking notes while reading. It enhances the learning effect and makes it easier to discover important passage later.
◆ Know the author and organization name: The author is a human with each background and prejudice. If you grasp the person and its affiliated organization, your understanding will increase.
◆ Grasp the intellectual background: The important part may be a discussion with another author who is involved with the author.
◆ Paper book vs screen: What is the difference in reading between paper printed matter and screen?
◆ Using subconscious: If you spend some time between reading and reading, there is work to unconsciously understand the reading content.
◆ Iterate repeatedly in various ways: Memory is fixed by outputting contents learned by reading such as speaking, visualizing, exporting.
Detailed details of each item are described below.
◆ Read the whole
Although it does not memorize all pages finely, it is necessary to look through all necessary points such as discussion, hypothesis, evidence, conclusion. Because it is difficult to remember it carefully after carefully reading everything, it is effective to keep important parts recorded, and this memo is useful when later remembering the details of the book.
◆ Reading time after deciding time
◆ It is necessary to know in advance that "There is time to read until today ○ ○ o'clock" after considering "Read the whole" of 01. By limiting time that can be read by myself, nature and reading speed improve. Never start reading without setting time to round up reading.
◆ Have a purpose and strategy
Before you begin reading, consider "Why are you reading this book" "How do you read this book?" You can not learn much if you do reading without thinking about them. When I start reading, I will be aware of the following four questions and look for the answer.
1: Who is the author of the book?
2: What is the theme (assertion) of the book?
3: What is the evidence to support the author's argument?
4: What is the conclusion of the book?
If we can grasp the four questions, we will further consider the following three questions. If you constantly challenge reading with these doubts, you can answer all the questions by the time you finish reading.
· What is the weakness of book argument, evidence and conclusion?
5: What do you think about book arguments, evidence, conclusion?
6: If you criticize, what does the author explain about these weaknesses?
There are also "three tips" to accomplish the above reading method, and it is as follows.
A: I am going to write critiques of read books in magazines
B: Imagine having a conversation with a book author, or planning a formal discussion
C: I am planning to search for the book of books
◆ Actively read
I will constantly generate hypotheses and questions from the beginning of reading, rather than waiting for the author's opinion to shock your head. "In other words, the point of this book is ○ ○ ..." "How did the author reach this conclusion ...?" When thinking about a hypothesis or a question, it is effective to take a simple note. Let's examine your hypothesis and questions as you watch a memo when you have finished reading it.
◆ Read three times
If you read the same book three times for different purpose, you can get the information of that book to the maximum. According to the University of Michigan this is the most important technique. It is effective to allocate time and do 3 times for reading as follows.
First time: discovery (5 to 10% of total reading time)
I will read the first reading as quickly as possible to obtain only the most necessary information while using the techniques so far. I will keep down the authors' purpose, method, conclusion with bullying work. Instead of reading carefully the first time, you can mark the 'headline', 'passage', 'phrase' etc you are interested in OK. Also note the question I raised in preparation for the second reading.
Second time: understanding (70 to 80% of total reading time)
If you have time to read, let's read the book that you read once. The purpose of the second reading is "to understand". Evaluate the evidence that the author is using to carefully and critically understand the main point of the book and to explain the point by the author. The point to pay attention to is the beginning and the end of the chapter and major parts. Also, it is necessary to pay attention to the part marked with the first reading, and to be able to answer all questions raised by the first reading.
Third time: Repetition and memo writing (10 to 20% of total reading time)
The purpose of the last reading is "to memorize the most important elements of the book." For the third time I will keep a brief note on claims, evidence and conclusion while reading books. I do not write out what I'm writing in the book as it is, it is easier to memorize by taking a note with my own words. Since it makes it difficult to memorize even if you write too much, I note down the most important elements with minimal content, and it seems that the notebook of about three pages per 100 pages is just right pace.
The author of this technique is a very good software to take notes, "EndNote"Zotero"Bookends"Is recommended.
◆ Focus on high information volume
Many of the nonfiction reading are written in "hourglass structure". General information such as summary, preface, and conclusion is placed at the beginning and end of the book like the top and bottom of an hourglass, and special information such as evidence and details to be grounded is placed in the middle of the sentence. Since this structure also applies to "each chapter", "each item", "each paragraph", it will be helpful for finding the part with high information volume.
In addition, since the amount of information is often high in the following parts, it is OK to be careful in order from the top.
· Book band, edge of cover
·table of contents
· Heading (Scan important parts here)
Introduction, introduction, overview
· Photos, graphs, figures
· Introduction and conclusion of the chapter
· Section headings
· Special format (bold type, italic type, number order, list etc.)
◆ PersonalMarkup languageuse
This is not to tag read sentences, but to always mark on sentences you read. Because it becomes confusing when reading back too much, it is short and a few places per page are appropriate amount. It is ideal to draw underlines with a short phrase or word narrowing down instead of pulling underlines to all the sentences you care about. In graphs etc. it is effective to add the necessary phrases and words to the margin.
◆ Know the author and organization name
Because the author is a single person, I am writing a book based on the education, work and life experience I have received in the same way as other people. It is unavoidable to join a sentence with biases, blind spots, bastards, failures, desires, etc. By knowing who wrote the book, you can judge the quality of the book you are reading, It helps understanding. Also, since most authors belong to organizations such as universities, companies, governments, newspapers, magazines, etc., the organization the author belongs to can also be one of the criteria for judging book quality.
◆ Grasp the intellectual background
Grasping the author and organization name also encourages understanding of the intellectual background of the book. Intellectual background refers to academic rules of the book and who is agreeing with the author's opinion. Because quotes from other authors almost always have views of other authors by authors, knowing how cited people are reacting makes it easier for the content of the book to be understood is.
◆ Paper book vs screen
When digitizing the resolution of printed matter becomes ~ 600 dpi, even with the monitor of the highest level PC, the resolution is ~ 100 dpi, and the e-book reader's Kindle's resolution is also 300 dpi at the maximum. Below is a comparison of 300 dpi (left) and 600 dpi (right), which is 600 dpi resolution, that is, it is much less fatigue to read with printed matter (Editor's Note: iPhone and Nexus series resolutions arehereSee. IPhone 6 / 6S Plus is "401 dpi" and Nexus 6 P is "515 dpi" at the time of article creation).
◆ Using subconscious
Thinking and spiritual processing is done unconsciously without being aware of it yourself. In other words, it becomes easier to understand by putting a little time after reading, but if you leave it unable to understand the same thing for a long time, you will unconsciously think about that problem. Also, since the reading comprehension ability dramatically decreases in a little over an hour, if you do not read for a few hours in a row, instead of reading for a period of one or two hours a little break, you read by the time of the next reading Some of the content will be handled unconsciously.
◆ Iterate repeatedly in various ways
As learning and memory are strengthened by repeating, reading is similar to sports and cooking. If you read a book you can learn what you learn by asking yourself yourself, discussing with the author, and exporting it by performing various repetition methods. Instead of repeating them all by themselves, if you talk to others about the book you read, announce in the class, show them all together, visualize what you can visualize as much as possible, you can fix it more effectively in memory , You will be able to integrate knowledge you already know what you have learned.
in Note, Posted by darkhorse_log