What is the background that "cancer" was created during the process of human evolution?
Cancer research has been continued day and night, but cures that can completely overcome cancer have not yet been discovered. Cancer is a cell that was born with the evolution of human beings, but what kind of evolutionary process of cancer was born and how can we find a cure for cancer that continues to evolve? About the latest cancer research is summarized about.
BBC - Earth - How cancer was created by evolution
The latest research by the American Cancer Society in 2016, The probability that Americans will develop cancer in their lifetime is calculated to be 42% for men and 38% for women, and the threat of cancer is on the rise. Also,Examination of Cancer Research UKAbout half of the Americans are threatened by the threat of "cancer" with 54% of men and 48% of women in Britain 's lifetime. In the UK, which tends to be worse than the United States,25 million people with cancer onset, And it is estimated that cancer incidence will increase in the next 5 years at a rate of 400,000 people, 3% each year.
Many of these studies show an increase in carcinogenic rate, but to understand this reason it is necessary to understand that cancer is a byproduct of evolution. This is due to the fact that human beings have been vulnerable to cancer cells because they have evolved into the most advanced and complex organism on the planet.
Sperm and ovum combine to form a fertilized egg, and human beings continue cell division and necessary items such as brain and organs are formed from as many as trillion cells. Cell division in the body is severely controlled, for example, when the hand of the fetus is formed, the cell will self-destruct at an appropriate timing "ApoptosisFive fingers are to be formed by the occurrence of "
Cancer cells also do cell division, but the important difference is to ignore the rule of cell division. Healthy cells do cell division according to the prescribed rules, but cancer cells continue cell division in an uncontrollable state like a wildly released beast. The division of cancer cellsP53 geneCancer cells that have proliferated without accepting the order of malignant tumor consisting of more than billions. The problem of cancer lies in this nature, and if cancer cells are left even after a tumor has been resected, the cancer cells repeat proliferation again to reconstitute the tumor.
Furthermore, all cancer cells that have been divided are not the same cells, and each time they divide, it may be accompanied by further mutations, in other words cancer cells have the potential to evolve constantly. Because it evolves from cancer cells which are broken cells, its properties become more cancerous. Charles Darwin preached this evolutionary trendNatural selection theoryCharles Swanton, a cancer researcher at the Francis Click Research Institute, said, "Cancer tumors have not evolved linearly, there are no two identical cells in the tumor , We are making a branch of evolution. "
The fact that cancer tumors are constantly changing genetic makeup is precisely the cause of making cancer cure difficult. Meanwhile, research on cancer treatment based on the evolutionary approach of cancer has been conducted in recent years, and Mr. Swanton is a new focused on lung cancerMolecular target therapyWe are aiming to establish.
Mr. Swanton is studying a cure for "the root of the tree" which is the root of branching evolution. Cancer cells that have branched and evolved within the tumor may become resistant to some existing therapies. In other words, since these cells may have evolved to become immune, Mr. Swanton has devised a method to treat mutations of three cancer cells at the same time as a target. At the same time, due to a treatment method that attacks different mutations, the attacked cancer cells may be mutated due to further resistance. If we can use this to create a mutation that attacks other cancer cells, it means that all cancer cells in the tumor may be eradicated.
Alberto Bardelli, a researcher at the University of Turin in Italy, is also one to study solutions to drug resistance due to evolution. Mr. Bardelli calls tolerant cancer cells "clone" and develops "drug resistance" that attacks specific cancer cells by collecting clones and carrying out special "drug treatment" I am doing an attempt. If Mr. Bardelli 's treatment is successful, drug therapy is unnecessary for cancer, so treatment can prevent cancer cells from developing new drug resistance. Although the effect of 'cloning therapy' has not been established at this stage, Mr. Bardelli 's research team is planning to begin clinical trials in the summer of 2016.
in Science, Posted by darkhorse_log