What is more effective learning method to study 10,000 hours?
In order to learn and master one thing, it is thought that it can be remembered firmly by repeatedly repeating the same contents, but than the one point concentrated learning method which studies the same thing for 10,000 hours Research has revealed effective learning methods that can be remembered securely in a short time.
Ditch the 10,000 hour rule! Why Malcolm Gladwell's famous advice falls short - Salon.com
◆ Centralized learning
BySvein Halvor Halvorsen
Most people trust that repetition after repetition is an effective means of learning and have penetrated everything from school teachers, athletes, corporate trainers to students. Summarized Peter Brown's studiesResearch bookAccording to, there is a mistake in the recognition of such "concentrated learning", and in order to acquire knowledge quickly and effectively, learning is performed at intervals "Interval type learning"It is effective.
OvernightCentralized learning is a learning method that has been used for a long time as typified, but it is not well known that the speed to forget the learning content is fast. The interval type learning has the advantage that by performing different types of exercises at regular intervals, it produces superior effects than the centralized learning and less practice amount.
◆ Spacing type learning
In order to demonstrate the effect of interval type learning, researchers conducted experiments with the cooperation of 38 surgical researchers. The researchers join the cut small blood vessels togetherMicrosurgical operationWe took four lessons on. Half of the residents receive four lessons in one day and the other half receive four lessons at a time in one week. One month later, a practical sessions were held in which all members connected the beating heart aorta of living rats. Not only did the former group have low performance in all procedures, 16% failed to join the blood vessels, but the latter group demonstrated superior skill with any of the procedures, the elapsed speed, and the success number .
The reason that the interval type learning is effective is that knowledge is embedded in long-term memory by learning the meaning of new knowledge and connecting it to the preliminary knowledge at intervals of several hours and several days ,Memory traceBecause it is strengthened. By searching for knowledge in the brain after forgetting it for a while, it is said that there is an effect to integrate and strengthen memory.
◆ Alternative Learning
According to research, "alternate learning" which learns alternately by combining two or more different exercises in order to master the main skill is also a more effective learning method than the centralized learning. As an illustration, I taught two college students group how to obtain the volume of a geometric individual such as "wedge shape, spheroidal sphere, spherical cone, half of cone". One group gets exercises together for each individual form, and the other is confused with the same exercise question by piece. Immediately afterwards, we conducted a test to confirm the practice result, and the average correct answer rate of the group that was taught collectively reached 89%, but the correct answer rate of the group learned by confusion was 60%. However, after collecting the same students and receiving the final test in a week, the accuracy rate of the former group fell to 20%, while the latter group maintained about the same level as 63% about.
In order to memorize the process of 10, "Conversely go to 2 until I remember 1, step by step up to 10 ..." is traditional intensive learning. On the other hand, it is an alternate learning that seems to be confusing at first sight, "I practice 1 a few times, move to 4, practice 7 several times and go to 3 ...", but effective for keeping long-term memory It is shown that it is.
◆ Variety type learning
For the study of the new learning method, we practiced 8 years old children to throw a bean bag (Otama) at the gymnasium into the bucket. We divided the children into groups A and B and half, group A practiced with a bucket placed 3 feet (about 91 cm) ahead and children in group B had 2 feet (about 61 cm) and 4 I had him practice with a bucket at a position different from the feet (about 1.2 m). Three months later, when I tried the test that throws a bean bag to a bucket three feet away to all the children, the best results were not practiced with a 3 foot bucket, the children of Group B It was said that results were obtained.
The result of this experiment was thought to be due to the exercise nerve being proficient by various exercises, but as research progresses, it is said that one situation is made successful by performing a plurality of different condition exercisesDiversified learningIndicates that it applies to recognition learning as well. The fact that exercises under different conditions are activating a wide range of the brain is also found in research on neuroimaging studies. In the multi-purpose learning, the research team guesses, because learning from different angles is incorporated, learning is coded, intelligence is increased, and flexible expression power that can adapt to various situations can be acquired.
◆ New learning method practiced by football team
In order to master skills, the above research has revealed that it is effective to combine various exercises at intervals rather than repeatedly doing the same thing to the lesbian. The cozy Vince Dooli, who leads such a complex learning model, led the football team "Bulldog Football" at the University of Georgia, has practiced since long ago. The exercise begins with exactly repeating the movements of the positions assigned individually on the field and repeats until the whole can move regularly. Meanwhile, players need to maintain basic skills such as blocking tackle and ball catch at the highest level while playing their roles.
After the basic practice, practicing is done divided into small groups for each position, not to be bored with the repetition of the same thing,Kicking GameWe practice interworking and devise a way to change what others do, even in the same exercise. We practice game form only once every Thursday and practice various play. At this time, it is said that regular practice becomes spiritual / physical rehearsal and you can demonstrate full speed performance.
A team of Georgia universities that was embraced practically by Mr. Duri in this effective new learning method newly acquired a good result of 201 wins, 77 losses and 10 draws between 1964 and 1988. I have won six titles and one national championship championship.
In other words, when you can not feel the effect on your regular study or learning, you can acquire skills efficiently if you keep in mind that "leave the interval" and "learn by combining various fields". Peter Brown's research book "Make It Stick: The Science of Successful Learning" which summarizes these studies can also be purchased at Amazon.co.jp. The price at the time of article writing is 2621 yen.
Amazon.co.jp: Make It Stick: The Science of Successful Learning: Peter C. Brown, Henry L. Roediger III, Mark A. McDaniel: Books