The possibility that 12% of women possess "supervision" capable of perceiving more than 100 million colors

ByNatalie Barletta

Humans feel color in the part called pyramidal cells with three in their eyes. Normally, people can recognize about one million colors, but there are four of these cone cells in the world, there are 4 color type visually impaired owner of "supervision" that can perceive 100 million colors. There are only a few people who actually demonstrate this ability, but potentially 12% of women have this ability.

The Humans With Super Human Vision | Senses | DISCOVER Magazine

Humans feel "color vision" by sending a message saying "This color is what!" To the brain that the pyramidal cells (red cones, green cones, blue cones) in the eyes feel color I am getting it. Generally, one pyramidal cell discriminates about 100 kinds of colors, and by combining three, we identify a total of one million colors. People who discriminate colors using these three cone cells are trichromat (three color type visually impaired person), if two pyramidal cells are two, it becomes dichromat (two color type visually impaired person). When the number of pyramidal cells becomes 2, the number of colors that can be perceived is about 1/100, 10 thousand colors. Dogs and New World monkeys (Broad nose eyes), Most mammals except humans have a two color type color sense. On the other hand, only a part of birds and insects can perceive up to ultraviolet rays. However, the researchers think that there are people who perceive it further in the people. It is a person with four pyramidal cells,Tetrachromats (4 color type color vision person)is. This 4 color type visually impaired person can perceive up to 100 million colors, colors not having a color sample.


Mr. Gabriela Jordan of the University of Newcastle has been looking for people with "supervision" with colleagues for 20 years. Initially, in the beginning, in 1948, it was a study on the color vision disorder caused by the Dutch scientist HL De Fries, "I might have a four-color type perception person". De Fries shows that a dichromatic color vision person has two regular pyramidal cells and one mutant pyramidal cell (weak power to distinguish between green and red) to many people I confirmed it by doing a matching test. This test is to adjust colors while adjusting the color of red and green to match it so that it looks yellow, two color type color vision is biased toward red or green for three color type visually impaired There was a trend.

De Fries went through a test with a girl who was thought to be a three-color type of colorist because of curiosity. The result was something that was close to red, which should not come out with a 3 color-type person. The girl's color sense itself should have no problem, De Fries searched for the cause and found out that color blindness appears genetically and comes out of male origin. When I looked at the mother's or daughter of a two-color type of color vision, I found that I had three pyramidal cells and one mutant pyramidal cell, a total of four pyramidal cells. De Fries is thinking that this one more cone cell is a cause of color perception different from a three color type visually impaired, and women who have this do not distinguish more colors I guessed it. However, De Fries did not announce this result and in the subsequent research never touched the 4 color-type person.

In the 1980's, a neurologist John Morron of Cambridge University who was studying the color vision of monkey went to study on this de fleece. Moron, also an advisor to Jordan's research, grasps this research with Jordan, "There must be a woman with a four-color type of color vision". Mr. Jordan made a speculation that "12% of women are 4 color-type visually impaired people".

So, in order to find a person with color four-color vision, I found out the mother of color visually impaired, improved the test of de fleece and carried it out. If it is really what De Fries is supposed to have, it should have been able to find a 4 color colorist with this, but in fact it was not found. Mr. Jordan began to question suspicion that "the fourth pyramidal cell is not active" "Is not" supervision "reality?"

In 2007, Mr. Jordan introduced a new test. This stares at the device that the three color circles flash in front of you in the darkroom. The circle looks exactly the same if it is a three color type color vision person but actually it is a delicate mixed color of red and blue synthesized by the computer so that only 4 color type color vision person can distinguish this difference It is becoming. Jordan performed this test on 25 women with four pyramidal cells. As a result, the woman named document number "cDa 29" responded accurately to all the tests.

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Finally Mr. Jordan who found a 4 color type visually impaired. But we do not have words to explain to us how the world looks to "cDa 29" so that we can not accurately explain "color is such a color" to people with color vision disorder was. Jordan says that although there are many women with four pyramidal cells, why the number of four color persons is overwhelmingly small, "cDa 29" is the other four pyramidal cells I am investigating how it differs from the person who possesses it.

I am studying color vision at the University of WashingtonJay NightsThinks that some kind of training that wakes up ability is necessary for potentially possessing 4 color type color sense to demonstrate its power. "The things with various colors we are seeing are made for 3 color type color vision people, that is, the world is for 3 color type color vision," Knights said. Because the natural world does not have so much color change, there is no need for the full color capability of 4 chromatic color sense, and the ability is kept secret.

Though future studies reveal the secret of four color type color vision, it is impossible to know what kind of world it is from the three color type of color vision ... ... it is a toothy thing.

in Science, Posted by logc_nt