The adverse effects on the mind and body due to ``bullying'' received as a child continue even after becoming an adult, and the socio-economic aspects are also adversely affected

It is known that the adverse effects on the mind and body of being bullied during school days are not temporary, and continue to have adverse effects for many years afterwards.

Louise Arseneault , professor of developmental psychology at King's College London , has summarized various research results on the long-term effects of such bullying during school days.

Annual Research Review: The persistent and pervasive impact of being bullied in childhood and adolescence: implications for policy and practice - Arseneault - 2018 - Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry - Wiley Online Library

◆What is the definition of bullying?
Arseneault defines bullying as ``repeated attacks between people of the same age group that make it difficult for the victim to protect themselves due to an imbalance of power.'' By this definition, aggression by a parent or teacher is not bullying but abuse, and a fight between two people of equal power is not bullying either. If there is a power imbalance between the perpetrator and the victim, such as the number of people, strength, ability, intelligence, and social influence, the attack is more likely to be considered bullying.

Bullying is a very common phenomenon worldwide. According to a survey (PDF file) conducted by WHO in 40 countries around the world, about 13% of 11-year-old children responded that they were victims of bullying, and a 2009 study targeting young people in 11 European countries 20% of children and young people aged 8-18 say they have been bullied.

In addition, it is known that the damage of bullying tends to continue for a long time, and research results show that children who were bullied in elementary school are more likely to be bullied even if they go on to junior high school. Studies have also reported that 43% of children who were bullied were still victims of bullying three years later.

The negative psychological effects of bullying on children
Bullied children are more likely to find it difficult

to adapt to school, feel socially alienated, and are at high risk of self-harm and suicidal thoughts . These findings demonstrate that bullying has a profound negative impact on childhood and adolescent mental health.

Several studies have also reported that being bullied in childhood and adolescence is associated with mental health problems such as anxiety disorders and depression. These research results are robust, controlling for potential confounding factors such as mental health problems that occurred before bullying began, gender, socioeconomic status of parents, and IQ.

Research on the causal relationship between bullying and mental health has the limitation of relying on observational research because it is not possible to conduct experiments separately into 'bullying groups' and 'non-bullying groups.' Still, multiple studies using genetically identical identical twins have found that bullied children are more likely to have mental health problems later in life than those who are not .

On the other hand, children with mutations in the serotonin transporter associated with mood regulation and depressive symptoms have a lower risk of bullying-induced psychological problems, and that children raised in supportive families experience emotions after being bullied. Biological and social factors, such as fewer and fewer behavioral problems , also play a role in the negative effects of bullying.

The long-term negative psychological effects of bullying
Few longitudinal studies have followed victims of bullying long into adulthood, but

findings from a Finnish cohort study show that women who were victims of childhood bullying committed suicide by the age of 25. and more likely to attempt suicide. In addition, it was found that men who were bullied as children had a higher risk of developing anxiety disorders between the ages of 18 and 23 and a higher risk of having a smoking habit .

In addition, a 2013 study targeting people who had been bullied multiple times between the ages of 9 and 16 found that people in their 20s who had been bullied for more than 10 years had depression, anxiety disorders, and depression. It has become clear that there is a high possibility of suffering from mental disorders such as panic disorder. In addition, multiple research results have been reported that bullying in childhood has a long-term adverse effect on the psyche.

The negative effects of bullying on physical and socioeconomic aspects
The long-term effects of bullying on victims have been shown to extend beyond mental health to physical well-being. A 2015

study found that people who were bullied as children had higher levels of inflammation than those who weren't, and women who were bullied were more likely to be obese.

The impact of being a victim of bullying also affects economic status, social relationships and quality of life in adulthood. A 2008 study found that victims of bullying tended to be less educated, which is a major problem given that educational attainment is closely linked to socioeconomic achievement in modern society. Yes. In addition, after controlling for factors such as mental disorders and home environment, research results show that victims of bullying have low economic conditions in adulthood, and studies that are likely to have fewer partners and friends at the age of 50. Results are also reported.

Arseneault points out from these research results that being bullied in childhood and adolescence not only causes temporary pain, but also has long-term adverse effects. She appealed for social efforts to reduce bullying and the need for support focused on victim recovery.

in Science, Posted by log1h_ik