Why are there fewer contraceptive options for men? What new contraceptive methods are currently under development?
Christina Chung-Lun Wang , a professor at the University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine, explains why there are few options for male contraceptive methods and new contraceptive methods being developed for men.
As contraceptive methods for women, there are oral contraceptives (pills), condoms for women, intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUD), emergency contraceptive pills (after pills), etc., but for men, intravaginal ejaculation There are almost two choices: avoid or condom.
Male birth control options are in development, but a number of barriers still stand in the way
According to Mr. Wang, the failure rate for men to pull out the penis before ejaculation is quite high at about 20%, and the failure rate for condoms is 2% when worn correctly, but many people do not wear it correctly. The failure rate is about 13%. Although there is an option to cut the vas deferens to prevent pregnancy, this requires surgery, and it is said to be very difficult to restore and make pregnancy possible again.
A 2017 (PDF file) survey of 1,500 men aged 18 to 44 found that more than 80% of men want to prevent their partners from getting pregnant, and men are also responsible for contraception. shown to have awareness. In addition, 87% of the men who are dissatisfied with condoms are interested in new contraceptive methods for men, and the spread of new contraceptive methods other than condoms and pipe cuts is expected to lead to unwanted pregnancies. It is expected to be an effective means of preventing
In recent years, new contraceptives for men have been attracting attention, but in fact, no new contraceptive method has appeared since the pipe cut that does not use a scalpel appeared in the 1980s. In this regard, Wang said that while the development of male contraceptives is primarily supported by academic institutions and non-governmental organizations, these institutions do not have drug development infrastructure comparable to that of pharmaceutical companies. However, he points out that there is also a problem of financial resources.
In addition, pharmaceutical companies are concerned about ``uncertainty in contraceptive development costs and market demand'', ``uncertainty in regulatory requirements for obtaining approval from government authorities in charge of medicines'', From the point of view of 'responsibility in case of occurrence', it is said that he is hesitant to develop contraceptives for men.
hormonal method is to deliver hormones such as testosterone and progestin through skin or muscle injections or oral medications.
Meanwhile, various researchers, including Mr. Wang, are developing male contraceptives with multiple approaches. An approach called the
Progestin has the effect of suppressing the secretion of pituitary hormones to make sperm. In addition, testosterone is also used by the testes to produce sperm, but it is known that the secretion of pituitary hormones is suppressed when the concentration exceeds a certain level, so taking testosterone has the effect of suppressing sperm production. It is said that there is A phase II clinical trial of a hormonal contraceptive is already underway by Wang et al.'s research team, and a contraceptive using another compound that acts like testosterone and progestin is also being developed.
Another approach includes non-hormonal contraceptives . This method uses drugs that target the sperm-producing organs to reduce sperm concentration and function, thereby reducing male fertility. Non-hormonal contraceptives have already been shown to be effective in animal experiments, and some non-hormonal contraceptives are in Phase I clinical trials.
Other contraceptive methods are being explored that reversibly block the vas deferens that transport sperm. Research supported by the Male Contraceptive Initiative and the Percemus Foundation is testing a method of blocking sperm by injecting a hydrogel , a type of polymer, into the vas deferens.
``People are ready to accept new contraceptive methods,'' Wang said. We believe that we can provide a new contraceptive method that is affordable and accessible to all.'
in Science, Posted by log1h_ik