How can Venus be terraformed into a habitable star?

Venus is the closest terrestrial planet to Earth and is sometimes referred to as the 'sister planet of Earth.' Also, in 2020, gas generated by the activity of life was

detected in the atmosphere of Venus, which attracted a great deal of attention. However, Venus has a surface temperature of 460 degrees Celsius, and the sky is also a hellish environment covered with thick clouds of concentrated sulfuric acid. Kurzgesagt , a scientific YouTube channel, explained how to make Venus the second earth with animation.

How To Terraform Venus (Quickly)-YouTube

Venus is by far the hottest planet in the solar system with a surface temperature of 460 degrees Celsius. The reason is due to the extreme greenhouse effect.

As is well known, carbon dioxide is a powerful greenhouse gas, and even if the carbon dioxide concentration in the earth's atmosphere increases from 0.03% to 0.04%, it has a great impact on the global environment.

On Venus, 97% of the atmosphere is carbon dioxide.

On the other hand, Venus is almost the same size as the Earth, so the gravity on the surface of the earth is about the same as 90% of the Earth.

It is known that long-term low-gravity environments have various effects on the human body, so the proximity of gravity to the earth is a great advantage as a migration destination.

To terraform Venus, you must first cool it to remove the gases that make up the atmosphere.

There are several possible ways to remove the vast amount of gas. One of them is to irradiate a laser from a satellite to heat the surface of the earth and release the atmosphere into space.

However, this method is impractical because it requires thousands of times more power and thousands of years of energy than humans can produce.

Another method is to use a chemical reaction to combine carbon dioxide with other compounds.

Specifically, a method of mining calcium and magnesium on Mercury and sending them to Venus using a

mass driver is conceivable.

This is still unrealistic, as it requires sending a tremendous amount of ore to Venus.

The cooling method for Venus devised there is to place a mirror between Venus and the Sun to block the sunlight.

A thin metal such as aluminum foil is sufficient for the mirror, but if you make one large mirror, the position will shift due to the pressure of sunlight.

Therefore, the mirror must be divided into multiple parts.

It is believed that this method of installing an auxiliary mirror near Venus can push the main mirror back with the sunlight reflected by the auxiliary mirror.

Even if the sunlight is blocked, the high temperature and high pressure will continue for 2 to 30 years.

Then, about 60 years later, when the temperature reaches 31 degrees Celsius, carbon dioxide becomes liquid and falls on the surface of the earth like rain.

When it rains for more than a century and the temperature drops to minus 81 degrees Celsius, the sea of ​​carbon dioxide freezes, and this time it begins to snow, and the atmospheric pressure drops accordingly.

This solved the high temperature and high pressure problem, but it's too cold to migrate. However, when the surface of the earth is warmed, a large amount of carbon dioxide turns Venus into a fireball, so the difficulty is water bubbles.

One solution is to cover the frozen carbon dioxide with plastic.

However, this method risks heating carbon dioxide during volcanic activity.

Another solution is to launch frozen carbon dioxide with a mass driver to make it the moon of Venus. However, as mentioned above, launching a large number of objects into space is a difficult task.

In addition to the problem of having a large amount of carbon dioxide, the problem of terraforming requires a large amount of water remains.

A promising destination for securing water is Jupiter's second satellite, Europa, which has twice as much water as the Earth.

The problem of water shortage can be solved by cutting out the ice of Europa and sending it to Venus with a mass driver. You might think, 'Isn't it realistic to launch a large number of objects with a mass driver?'

By combining a technology called 'Skyhook ' that exchanges materials between two planets using a rope floating in outer space and a mass driver, Europa's ice can be sent to Venus at a relatively low cost. Above, it is also possible to send Venus' carbon dioxide to Europa.

By removing excess nitrogen and lowering atmospheric pressure in a similar way, Venus will have a frozen sea centuries later.

If you look at Venus from space at that time, it should look quite different from what it is now.

Once the carbon dioxide problem is resolved, remove the mirror and reheat Venus to just the right amount of warmth.

One day on Venus is long, and when converted to one day on Earth, it is about 117 days, so if it is left as it is, half of Venus will be hot and the other half will be extremely cold. Therefore, by making the auxiliary mirror a pseudo-sun, the day and night of Venus can be made just the right length.

Then, a large amount of algae is sprayed to cause photosynthesis and oxygen is produced.

This is the same process that happened on Earth 3.5 billion years ago.

In addition, cultivate the earth to grow

nitrogen-fixing plants ...

We will create an ecosystem that can adapt to the environment of Venus by genetic engineering.

By doing so, Venus will gradually become a lush star. Ultimately, it will take thousands of years for Venus to have the same atmospheric composition as Earth, but because the temperature and atmospheric pressure are the same as Earth, the settlers of Venus can only wear normal clothes and gas masks. It is possible to walk on the surface.

Carbon dioxide and nitrogen produced during the terraforming process may be the energy source needed to terraform new planets such as Mars.

Kurzgesagt summarizes the above as a terraforming method for Venus that can be achieved with technology that even modern people can barely reach, and that can be done in a relatively short period of time.

in Science,   Video, Posted by log1l_ks