The universe may be made up of countless small 'space-time bubbles'



In addition to observing with a telescope, I have been able to explain natural phenomena using mathematics. However, humanity is still said to be able to explain only about 5% of the entire universe. The technical media Motherboard introduces the theory that such a universe is made of small bubbles of quantum level .

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The general theory of relativity published by Albert Einstein in 1916 explains that outer space is a 'space-time' in which time and space are closely related, and is like a trampoline distorted by gravity.

At the time when the general theory of relativity was announced, physicists had an intense debate about whether the universe would expand. Einstein, who believed that “the universe created by God” is invariant, thinks that the universe is contracted by attraction based on his general theory of relativity, and added a coefficient called “ cosmological constant ” to the equation of the derived gravitational field. We added and assumed that 'space-time has repulsive force'. Later, Einstein regretted the introduction of the cosmological constant as 'the biggest mistake in his life' and removed it from his paper.

In 1929, American astronomer Edwin Hubble observed the red shift of the galaxy and demonstrated that the universe is expanding. Furthermore, observations of supernova redshifts in 1998 revealed that the expansion of the universe is accelerating .

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Until then, it was thought that the expansion of the universe would slow down due to the gravitational force generated in the gravitational field, so the problem of how the universe is accelerating and expanding eased the physics world. Hypothetical

energy called dark energy is the most promising candidate for accelerating and expanding the universe.

However, the theoretical value of the total amount of dark energy is about 120 digits larger than the actual value derived from the observation. In other words, when you look at the entire universe, almost all of the dark energy exists in a form that humankind cannot recognize . The cosmological constant that Einstein once deleted was said to be able to explain this dark energy mathematically and was reevaluated.

In 1955, physicist John Wheeler argued that 'time-space is not constant in the quantum state, it is like a constantly changing bubble ' and advocated the concept of ' space-time bubble '.

Regarding the expression “made of space-time bubbles”, Wheeler himself “imagines a plane flying over the sea. When flying high, the sea surface looks smooth. However, when the airplane lowers the altitude, you can see the sea surface rippling, and when you get closer to the sea surface, you can see each bubble, and the space-time is the same, and it looks smooth from a macro perspective. But it ’s bubbled up on a small enough scale. ”



In September 2019, professor Steven Carlip of the University of California, Davis published a paper showing that space-time bubbles and dark energy are closely related.

Professor Carlip interprets that the entire universe is formed by a tiny universe that expands and contracts. He explains that the behavior of bubbles in spacetime cancels out extra dark energy and expansion at the quantum level, resulting in less energy being observed when viewed throughout the universe.

According to Professor Carlip, in order for the spacetime bubbles to cancel energy and expansion, it is necessary to assume that there is no essential direction in time at the quantum level. Assuming that you don't even know what time is anymore, Professor Carlip says, “In the quantum world, it ’s not so unusual. Most physicists will answer why they do n’t know the direction of time. '

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Physicist Jack Ng published a paper (PDF file) in September 2019. Ng also explained the cosmological constant using the idea of space-time bubbles. In addition, Ng combined the idea of spacetime bubbles with the idea of thermodynamics, and came up with the new idea of interpreting spacetime bubbles as the “ smallest computer in the universe ” that encodes and processes energy into information.

Mr. Ng who challenged the theory of all things to unify electromagnetic force , strong force , weak force, and gravity existing in nature not only elucidates space-time bubbles and dark energy, but also quantum mechanics and thermodynamics beyond that It is said that we are also looking at the unification.

Ng said, “The presence of space-time bubbles implies the existence of a ' dark sector ' that with the help of thermodynamic ideas is not affected by any forces that exist in nature. “This series of studies is not very common in the physics world, but it makes sense for me.”

in Science, Posted by log1i_yk