Possibility of releasing experiments to eradicate Aedes aegyptias that mediate malaria · deng · jika with genetically engineered mosquitoes in the mainland of the United States
Mosquito populations are drastically reduced by releasing genetically engineered mosquitoes and mating with wild mosquitoes, and mosquitoes are mediatedmalariaIn some countries and regions such as Brazil, genetically engineered mosquito release experiments are being carried out. Meanwhile, even in the United States finally cause diseases such as malaria "Aedes aedes"A genetically engineered mosquito made to eradicate "OX 513 APermission for the release experiment of "was issued by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
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Animals killing the most human beingsAmong the known mosquitoes, Aedes aegyc is malaria,yellow fever,Dengue fever,Zika feverIt is known that it mediates at least four kinds of protozoa and viruses, and it is enough to say "literally the most dangerous animals in the world" by Associate Professor Omar Akbari who is a biologist at the University of California Riverside.
Attempts to prevent infections of various diseases have been continued by eradicating Aedes aegycni, a threat to this human being, and in recent years, techniques for dramatically reducing Aedes aegychus using gene manipulation techniques have been developed and attracting attention . Among them, BritishOxitecThe genetically modified mosquito "OX513A" developed by the company has the property that genes incorporated in males accumulate specific enzymes at high concentration, larvae produced by females mated with male can be grown by this enzyme It has the feature of dying out. For this reason, by releasing a large amount of male OX 513 A, it is expected that larvae produced by mated females will not survive, resulting in a sharp decline in Aedes aegyces.
Outdoor experiments of releasing OX513A developed by Oxitec in the wild and eradicating Aedes aegyces have already been carried out in Brazil, Panama, Cayman Islands, etc. In any experiments, more than 90% of the Aedes aegyptians in the area He said that he succeeded in reducing it. Outdoor experiments conducted at Placicaba in Brazil have achieved the result that the cases of dengue infection in the experimental year decreased by 91% compared to the previous year.
Of course there are concerns about releasing genetically engineered mosquitoes to the natural world, and the views on safety are not consistent among scientists. Acts that have the possibility of being irrevocable by breaking the balance of ecosystems, like Gregory Kaevnik, a researcher at the Bioethics Institute, who stated that "a certain species should not be put to extinction to satisfy human needs" There is a scientist who takes a cautious theory that it should be avoided, while an entomologist Zac Elderman says that eradication of mosquitoes as "to respond to mosquitoes is a moral obligation of our scientists" There is also a scientist's opinion that the impact on the ecosystem is small and humanitarian benefits are outweighed.
For OX 513 A, which has a dramatic effect in outdoor experiments already limited, the FDA started procedures for field trials on the island of Florida, USA in March 2016 and evaluated the impact of FDA and Oxitec Was released for 30 days, various opinions and disputes were accepted. As a result, on August 6, 2016 the FDA will issue permission for field experiments of OX 513 A in Florida. However, the FDA's permission does not immediately permit OX 513 A field trials but it is necessary to undergo regional and state approval procedures.
Besides OX 513 A permitted for field experiments by FDA, genetic manipulation techniques for eradicating mosquitoes have been developed, and among themCrispr-Cas 9UsedGenome editingBy inheriting malaria-resistant genes with nearly 100% probability,Movement aiming to eradicate malaria parasitesThere are also. It has been successful as a falcon fly sterilized already by radiation treatmentInfertile insect repellencyAs for the possibility of concrete field experiments in the mainland of the United States as to whether it can suppress the infection of diseases by genetic manipulation of mosquitoes as described above, the argument over its conclusion will become more heated That's right.