When an economist explains the reason why premarital negotiations have changed from "shame" to "game" in the past 100 years, it becomes like this

ByLauren rushing

Parents will "socialize" their children by teaching various norms, including prohibiting sexual acts and pre-marital talks. However, from the viewpoint of economics, this "socialization" is a very high cost, an inexplicable act of putting in time and effort, although there is not much to get. In the past it is a pre-marital talks that were severely cracked down to be subject to punishment, but now it is recognized in many countries. Economists Hess Fernandez Villarivelde and others have published papers as to why the way of thinking about premarital status negotiations changed in the past 100 years can be explained from this "socialization of children" and economics point of view.

(PDF file)http://www.jeremygreenwood.net/papers/fgg14.pdf

69% of criminal cases in the United States · New Haven between 1710 and 1750 concerned premarital negotiations. At that time, pre-marital negotiations were considered crimes, punishment such as fine, whiplash, imprisonment was imposed. However, in the last 100 years the way of sex and prenatal negotiations has changed a lot. The element of "socialization of children" has a big influence on the change in this way of thinking.

In the United States around 1900, only 6% girls negotiate for pre-marital status by 19 years of age. In 1968, a girl who is tolerant about premarriage negotiations will increase to 15%, but notably the girl who was 19 years old and had been pre-marital negotiations had reached 40% more than that. Furthermore, in 1983 the girl who was tolerant of pre-marital negotiations increased to 45% and the girl who was experiencing pre-marital negotiation at 19 years increased to 73%. In other words, social public order has always been lagging behind the reality. The girl who is currently engaged in pre-marital negotiation at the age of 19 has reached 75%.

ByJames Theophane

So why were there many "socialized" children who followed the norm in the 1900s? In the case of children, especially girls, it was because there was the possibility of depriving educational and work opportunities if they were born out of wedlock, or adversely affecting marriage. Parents preached the dangers of premarital negotiations with limited time and effort so that girls would not be unhappy, and they had socialized their children. In the same way, the state will also set out a scheme to promote "social norms" and "abstinence" to prevent disease epidemics and pregnancy of girls.

Basically, the idea here is that people compare and balance "profit" and "cost" and make decisions. In other words, when deciding whether or not a girl should negotiate before marriage, I will put on the profit "pleasure from sex" and the cost of "risk of pregnancy and disease, the impact on the future". And as a result of comparative weighing, we will choose better ones for you. For the girls of the 1900s, the "cost" of premarital negotiations was very expensive.

However, looking at the figure below, the failure rate of contraception is decreasing with the times. In other words, the cost of premarital negotiations has declined in today's teenage girls. This is the result of improving the quality of contraceptive devices, but on the other hand the number of illegitimate children is increasing. By lowering the failure rate of contraception, which is a cost, girls prioritized the "fun gained from sex" profit, resulting in an increase in the number of illegitimate children.

In addition, this is represented by three relationships of "socialization", "number of illegitimate children" and "age". Until the 1980s, "socialization" had value, but it plummeted afterwards. If the child's "socialization" had the same value as in 1900, premarital negotiations may not have been as common as it is now.

There was also a relationship between home income and girls' pre - marriage negotiations, while 70% of girls belonging to the bottom 10% of household income experienced premarital talks between 15 and 19, 47% of the top 10% are inexperienced. We know that the proportion of girls premarital to negotiate tends to increase as income decreases. In addition, 68% of the girls who worry about girls when they are aware of pregnancy are concerned, while 46% of the lower girls are worried about it.

When parents make their children socialize, their preferences and values ​​are reflected there. For example, a girl who grew up in a society where birth control is not widely known is socialized from parents saying "women should not negotiate before marriage". If a girl emigrated to the present America in the mid-teens, she will be chastically living more than American girls. If families continue to hold values ​​before immigration, their influence will be handed down to girls' children and grandchildren, but the impact will weaken as time passes. In the USA where contraception is common, there is no need to strictly discriminate against prenatal negotiations, because it is unlikely to be ashamed of illegitimate children.

ByDon O'Brien

This means that the environment in which the mother, the woman, is located affects the level at which the child is socialized. The figure below shows the relationship between "mother's educational background" and "mother tells her mother is prenatal negotiation" shame ". "HS" shows a woman who has not graduated from high school, "HS" shows a woman who graduated from high school and went to a university, "C" shows a woman with a career over university degree, but the academic qualification is high The proportion of teaching "premarital negotiation as shame" is getting higher. This is because "making socialize" is a very expensive act requiring time and effort.

In other words, although the "socialization" of children depends on the environment in which the parents are located, recent improvement in contraceptive devices has brought about a greater influence on sexual activity than parent teaching. And, as the threat itself that adversely affects the life of children is reduced, it is thought that the desire for parents and churches to have children "according to norms and ideologies, want socialization" will become smaller It is.

This research shows that "socialization" done by parents and churches is done in places where technology is not developed. The advancement of contraceptive technology changes with the act of socializing children about premarital negotiations. SociologistWilliam Fielding OgbarnMr. said that "the majority of social change is a reaction to technological progress", but even in sexual norms, many people have not noticed that the progress of contraceptive devices has been changing.

in Note, Posted by darkhorse_log