Free distribution of money and lottery has little effect on increasing vaccination rates, is there an approach to encourage vaccination?
With the advent of the powerful mutant Delta strain , the new coronavirus infection (COVID-19), which is once again prevalent in the world, is said to have a certain effect on Delta strains with vaccines made by Pfizer and Moderna. With the results of the study, promoting vaccination will help stop the COVID-19 epidemic. Meg Elkins, an expert in cultural economics and development economics, explains the approach to 'people who refuse vaccination', which is a problem in increasing vaccination rates.
Why lotteries, doughnuts and beer aren't the right vaccination'nudges'
Since the second half of 2021, the delta strain of the new coronavirus has been prevalent on a global scale, and the number of deaths per day has reached thehighest in the world again in the United States, where the epidemic of COVID-19 had once subsided. However, the ferociousness of COVID-19 does not know where to stop. Governments and the World Health Organization (WHO) are promoting vaccination of Delta strains, which are said to have a certain effect as a measure against COVID-19, but anti-vaccine people who refuse vaccination for some reason are vaccinated. It is a hindrance to improving the inoculation rate.
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A method of recommending vaccination to these anti-vaccine people with a particularly strong 'free' power as an incentive has been introduced on a trial basis. In California, the United States, in addition to a gift card of 50 dollars (about 5500 yen) for those who received the first vaccination, a total of 1.5 million dollars (about 165 million yen) will be given to 10 people by lottery In addition to the $ 100 (about 11,000 yen), the state of New York has a campaign to get a chance to repay the full amount of the university scholarship. In response to this, a campaign has been proposed in Australia to give AUD 300 (about 24,000 yen) if the vaccine is completely inoculated.
However, some studies have shown that these approaches are ineffective. An analysis by the Melbourne Institute found that the $ 100 approach had only a slight increase in vaccination coverage, and that the lottery itself had a strong incentive. However, evidence of increased vaccination rates was found in the May 2021 Ohio campaign to 'win up to $ 1 million for vaccinated people.' It turns out that it wasn't.
It was disseminated by Richard Thaler, who won the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences in 2017, while it is said that at least 80% of vaccination rate must be achieved in order to obtain herd immunity against COVID-19. The idea of the psychological method ' nudge ' is attracting attention. Nudge, which Sailor explained in his book, is like 'putting fruit at eye level' when you want to feed fruit in the presence of unhealthy junk food and healthy fruit. It refers to a method that is easy and cheaply achievable, yet does not force you to make choices such as 'hiding junk food,' and means the concept of 'promoting you to take the desired action voluntarily.'
Practical Behavioral Economics | Richard Thaler, Cass Sunstein, Mami Endo | Business & Economy | Kindle Store | Amazon
According to the Behavioral Insights Team, a research organization from the British Cabinet Office that specializes in nudge, nudge 'makes the default option the preferred option, such as opt-out ,' 'makes it an instinctively easy-to-choose option,' and 'everyone. It is important to have four elements, such as 'I'm also doing it', which suggests social ties, and 'Providing choices at the right time, such as the New Year, which makes a year's total.' According to Elkins, based on this Nudge idea, the method of sending an email saying 'I have reserved the vaccination date here, so I will inform you of the reservation date' has the effect of increasing the vaccination rate by 11%. It seems that it was confirmed.
Of course, these techniques cannot turn anti-vaccine people who believe that the new coronavirus vaccine alters human DNA. Therefore, in future research, Nudge should be used and 'emotions should be taken into consideration,' Elkins points out.
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