What are the 'seven important points for the hero to survive' in a fantasy made in medieval Europe?

In medieval European stories, there are many mysterious beings, brave knights, and beautiful women, such as '

Sir Gawain and the Green Knight ' and ' Sir Orfeo '. In such a fantasy of medieval Europe, Marta Cobb, a researcher of medieval English literature and the chairman of the International Medieval Conference at the University of Leeds, explains '7 important points for the main character to survive'. I am.

A Survival Guide to Medieval Fairy Tales --Medievalists.net

Cobb points out that medieval European fantasy is a story about a romance that both men and women can enjoy, while at the same time the male protagonist establishes himself through a dangerous adventure. Major medieval European stories include the following:

Sir Lanval
One day, Lambert, a knight who serves King Arthur and suffers from poverty despite his bravery and appearance, is invited to a luxurious tent by a stream and becomes a mysterious beauty and lover. The beauty gave Ranval a lot of gold and silver and promised to meet him when he wanted to, but demanded that he 'don't tell anyone else about himself' as a condition. However, Ranval, who was approached by the queen, inadvertently said, 'My lover is more beautiful than the queen,' and the angry queen is accused of Ranval and brought to justice. The beautiful woman who broke her promise did not appear easily and Ranval was cornered, but on the day of the trial, the beautiful woman appeared and Ranval was released, and the two headed to the legendary island of Avalon .

・ Sir Orfeo
'Sir Orpheus ' is a story based on the episode of ' Descent of the Underworld ' in which Orpheus , who appears in Greek mythology, chased his deceased wife to the Netherworld and tried to bring him back. In Sir Orfeo, the stage has moved to Winchester, England, and the scenario is that Queen Hurodis, the wife of King Orfeo, is kidnapped by a fairy. Orfeo entrusts the country to the butler's steward and adventures, and succeeds in persuading the king of the fairy country with a harp performance to recover his wife. At the end, he tested the loyalty of the steward who entrusted the country and returned to the throne.

・ Sir Gawain and the Green Knight
A 'green knight' with green clothes, hair, skin and horses breaks into a banquet held at King Arthur's court, and King Arthur's man, Gawain, provoked and decapitates the green knight. .. However, the Green Knight picked up his neck without dying and promised to meet again in the 'Green Chapel' a year later. Gawain sets out on a journey to the green chapel and is tempted by the princess of the castle who stayed along the way, but refuses with a strong will.

Gawain, who meets the Green Knight again, is about to be decapitated, but saves his life at the end. In fact, the green knight was the owner of the castle where Gawain stayed, and the temptation of the princess was also to test Gawain's measure. After returning safely, Gawain was blessed by the king and other people.

The story of Bath's wife
In 'The Story of the Wife of Bath' in 'The Story of Canterbury ' written in the 14th century, a knight who was scheduled to be sentenced to death by raping a woman said, 'Women's favorite thing' as a condition to save their lives. Search for 'what is'. Instead of listening to the old woman's wishes, the knight gets the answer, 'Women want to control their husbands,' from the unsightly old woman they met during their journey.

A knight who was brilliantly saved, the old woman demanded that the knight marry her, and the knight reluctantly swallowed this request. On the wedding night, the old woman reveals to the knight that she can change her appearance and gives her the choice of becoming a 'hard-to-see but loyal wife' or a 'beautiful but unfaithful wife.' To the old woman. Recognizing the knight's choice of understanding that 'a woman wants to rule her husband,' the old woman became a 'beautiful and loyal wife.'

After explaining these stories, Cobb points out '7 important tips for the main character to survive'.

◆ 1: Notice the signs of a mysterious world
It is important for the protagonist to notice this symptom, as there is a supernatural intervention in each story. Some of the signs of a supernatural being are very noticeable, such as 'a knight with a green body rushing into the feast', 'a boat that moves without a sailor', 'too beautiful in a luxurious tent'. Some are relatively inconspicuous, such as 'women.'

◆ 2: Be careful where you sleep
Medieval fantasy is characterized by 'characters are vulnerable to danger when sleeping in new or unusual places.' For example, in Sir Orpheo, Queen Hurodis dreams of taking a nap under a strange tree and declares that the King of the Fairy Land will take her. Orfeo forces the soldiers to protect Queen Hurodis, who is taken to the Fairyland.

◆ 3: Avoid physical battles
The main characters in the story are often brave knights and kings with a large number of soldiers, but using force against supernatural beings is useless. In 'Sir Orpheo', Queen Hurodis was taken away even though there were soldiers, and in 'Sir Gawain and the Green Knight', the green knight did not die even if he decapitated, and he picked up the fallen neck 1 I promise to meet again in a year.

◆ 4: Do not ignore 'disgusting old lady'
Not only does the knight save his life by the words of an old woman, which is hard to see in 'The Story of Bath's Wife,' but he eventually transforms into a young and beautiful wife. Also, in 'Sir Gawain and the Green Knight', not only the wife of the castle owner, but also an old lady who is much older and unattractive appears, but this old lady is Gawain's aunt Morgan and Green. It turns out that it was Morgan's money that the knight broke into King Arthur's feast. In this way, the 'disgusting old lady' that appears in the story often holds an important key and should not be ignored.

◆ 5: Don't be fooled by beautiful women
Many beautiful women in medieval stories are romance-minded, but in 'Lanval', Ranval was banished or banished to death by breaking a woman's promise, 'Sir Gawain and the Green Knight'. Then the temptation by the princess of the castle confuses Gawain. As you can see, beautiful and mysterious women are desirable, but they can also be a problem for the protagonist.

◆ 6: Do not try to surpass the supernatural being
There are many high-ranking beings such as kings and queens in the story, but the supernatural beings are the highest. It is understandable that there are things that human beings cannot reach, such as the overwhelming assets of a woman who became a lover in 'Lanval' and the gorgeous castle of the fairyland reached in 'Sir Orpheo'. Is required.

◆ 7: Keep promises no matter how reckless
Cobb points out that 'keeping promises' is often an important feature of medieval stories. For example, 'Sir Gawain and the Green Knight' is a story of adventure to fulfill the promise with the Green Knight, and 'The Story of the Wife of Bath' is to marry while keeping the promise even if the other woman is an old woman who is hard to see. On the other hand, 'Lanval' is forced into a predicament by breaking the promise.

In 'Sir Orpheo', the power of music is used to make the king of the fairyland promise to 'get whatever he wants' and try to regain the kidnapped Queen Hurodis. The King of the Fairy Land protests that Orfeo does not match the beauty of Queen Hurodis, but Orfeo persuades 'Is the King not keeping his promise?' And succeeds in bringing the Queen back with the promise as a shield. did.

Cobb points out that the intervention of supernatural beings in the story of medieval Europe is important not only to make the story more attractive and to create an event, but also to give the protagonist 'another level of trial'. Overcoming the intervention of supernatural beings requires not only courage, but also the ability to have a strong will to keep promises and remain loyal, and can teach people lessons through the story. Cobb said.

in Note, Posted by log1h_ik