What should we do to make it easier to read and summarize the “How to Write Papers” directed by international authors?


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Umberto Eco became the world's most popular writer in 1980 when he released the world ’s best-selling novel “ The Name of Rose ”, which exceeded 55 million copies worldwide. Mr. Eko is a well-known person as a researcher, and Mr. Eko has taught how to write an appropriate paper for university students and researchers about the guidebook `` Paper writing method-research, research, writing technique and procedure- '' MIT Press Reader , a web magazine from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, introduces some of the content.

How to Write a Thesis, According to Umberto Eco | The MIT Press Reader
https://thereader.mitpress.mit.edu/umberto-eco-how-to-write-a-thesis/

Mr. Eko described the first paper written by university students to obtain a degree as 'just like first love.' Even if he continues his academic research, he says that the first paper is hard to forget and should not be neglected. There is no perfect rule on how to write a paper, but Mr. Eko gives some advice.

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◆ 1: Avoid excessive use of long sentences and pronouns
When writing, people tend to use well-developed rhetoric and complex sentence structures, but Mr. Eko is careful not to write long sentences. If a long sentence comes to mind, it should be broken down in an easy-to-understand manner after writing the sentence. Eko says that you should keep away from elements that complicate sentences, such as pronouns and subordinate clauses, without fearing that you will write the subject twice.

As a bad example, Mr. Eko gives the following sentence.

The pianist Wittgenstein, brother of the well-known philosopher who wrote the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicusthat today many consider the masterpiece of contemporary philosophy, happened to have Ravel write for him a concerto for the left hand, since he had lost the right one in the war.



Japanese translation: “Pianist Wittgenstein is a brother of a prominent philosopher who published a logical philosophical essay that is considered a masterpiece of modern thought by many, and he lost his right hand in the war, Ravel wrote a piano concerto for his left hand for him. ''

Eko insists that this sentence should be rewritten as follows.

The pianist Paul Wittgenstein was the brother of the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. Since Paul was maimed of his right hand, the composer Maurice Ravel wrote a concerto for him that required only the left hand.



Japanese translation: “Pianist Paul Wittgenstein is a brother of philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein . Paul was unable to use his right hand, so composer Maurice Ravel was a piano concerto for his left hand. ''

By breaking down long sentences in this way and writing them properly without omitting the names of people, readability is dramatically increased. Also, there are many people who use pronouns frequently, but if pronouns are used many times in long sentences, the reader will be confused as `` who is this pronoun 'he'? '' . Therefore, regardless of whether you are writing a literary work, you should avoid excessive use of long sentences and pronouns when writing a paper.

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◆ 2: You are not a poet
Avant-garde poets use a lot of commas and periods in poetry and divide sentences in surprisingly fine ways to achieve various effects, but many who write papers are not poets. Also, even a poet does not need to bring poetry techniques to the paper.

'Even if your paper is about avant-garde poetry, you are not a poet. If you are writing a paper about Caravaggio (a Baroque Italian painter), is that person a painter? Pointed out. The paper serves as a meta-language, and the content of the paper should not affect the way the paper is written. For example, even if the paper is about a mental disorder, the reader cannot understand if the paper itself is written as if it were written by a person with a mental disorder.

Some people may argue that “my expression is poetic, and artistic expression is important to me,” but those people proceed to the arts without taking a university degree. Eiko says that's fine. In addition, Dante Alighieri and T · S · Eliot , Edoardo Sanguineti also be a great poet, such as, the sentence to talk about poetry of themselves and others are written in clear prose, understanding of poetry is shallow I insisted that people could read it.

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◆ 3: Use new paragraphs when necessary
Many people tend to hesitate to enter a new paragraph and write a paper that continues to explain in a single paragraph. But Eko advises that if it is deemed logically necessary, he should not hesitate to enter a new paragraph.

◆ 4: Leave only necessary parts
It's not bad to write out everything you have in mind when you write a paper, but if you get lost in the inspiration and lose sight of the original purpose of the paper, you will end up falling. It is wise to review the draft later and delete it or attach it as an appendix if you think it is an extra part. It is important to keep in mind that papers exist only to prove hypotheses and not to show the breadth of knowledge.

◆ 5: Make the advisor a guinea pig
If you are writing your own paper alone, it is difficult for you to notice any strange points or deficiencies in the text. The advisor of the paper should have you read the text once when the first chapter is completed, even if the whole paper has not been written. It is important for a paper to have other people understand it, and there is no point in a paper that an advisor or friend cannot read and understand. “Don't play a lonely genius,” says Eko.

◆ 6: Don't stick to writing from the first chapter
Papers do not necessarily have to be written in order from the beginning. If you set the table of contents first and decide what kind of content you want to write in which chapter, you can start writing from which chapter using the table of contents and concept as a guideline. It seems that it is important to start writing and gain confidence.

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◆ 7: Avoid using figurative text and unnecessary quotes
In the paper, Eko insists that not much metaphorical text and terms should be used. The paper should use words that can't be misunderstood by readers, and should be sentences that can understand meaning even if they are not contemporaries who can fully understand the context.

For example, if it says “High School Baseball Sacred Place”, you can see that many people living in Japan refer to the Hanshin Koshien Stadium where the National High School Baseball Championship is held. However, it is unlikely that this expression will be transmitted to people living overseas, and even a Japanese reader may be a metaphor that will not work in the distant future. In order to avoid such problems, it is important to use formal names in the paper as much as possible, avoid rhetorical expressions, and write in a way that is not misunderstood.

In addition, as a problem often encountered by beginners, Mr. Eko points out that too much “” (in Japanese) is used. People tend to use quotes when they want to emphasize something serious. But when quotes should be used in a paper, Eko points out that it is basically the case of quoting text from another document or specifying the title of a paper or document.

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◆ 8: Clearly define terms used for the first time
When writing a paper, do not use a term that you cannot explain clearly. If the main theme of the paper has a term that you don't understand, 'You have chosen the wrong theme (if you do further research, you will choose the wrong career),' He gives a strict opinion.

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in Note, Posted by log1h_ik