Since a baby, a human has a sense that "you should give things in preference to yourself similar to yourself"


Children are said to desire "being fair" before they can speak enough words, and children who are dealt with in an unfair way can also abandon their snacksIt is said that there is. In the latest study, even a baby from 18 months to 30 months old is predicting "when things are sufficient, things are distributed equitably", plus "when resources are not enough, they are similar to distributors It is found that "things are handed over to others" is "fair" for babies.

Infants expect ingroup support to override fairness when resources are limited | Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

Study shows babies expect fairness in resource sharing

Babies display learned prejudice early in life, but it can be unlearned - Quartz

Researchers conducted three puppet experiments on 120 babies from 18 months to 30 months of age. In the experiment scenario, firstly Kirin and monkey dolls appeared, then another monkey appeared with a tray with cookies on it. The cookie on the tray had two and three times, and the behavior of the baby was observed by the number of cookies and the subsequent behavior of the monkeys. From previous studies, the baby knows that when "an unexpected event happens" the baby knows to look at that subject for a long time, and observing the behavior of the baby, the baby holds what kind of "prediction" by the baby It is understood whether it is.

As a result of observation of the experiment, when three cookies were on the tray, the baby said, "When the monkey eats all the cookies", "When sharing cookies only with one doll happens" I stared at the doll for a long time. From this, the baby was predicting "Monkey distributes cookies fairly to the other monkey and giraffe", "When resources are sufficient, babies will be distributed fairly" You can see that it is forecasting.

On the other hand, when only two cookies were on top of the tray, it turned out that the baby had a tendency to look long in "When a monkey who brought a cookie gave a giraffe a cookie." This means that the baby was predicting that "the monkey will distribute the cookie to the other monkey", that is, the baby says, "If resources are limited, those who distribute themselves resemble themselves To distribute it to the other party "is to predict. When assuming that babies seek fairness, "fairness" when a resource is limited to babies is "to give people who possess things to others who resemble themselves."


According to Dr. Lin Bian, a researcher at Stanford University who researched, there are other similar research results, which is considered as one of evolutionary adaptation. It is relatively early for children to have awareness of "group differences" at a relatively early stage, and this consciousness is related to "response and decision making when resources are not sufficient". In past research, I showed pictures of children with different gender and race to children 3 to 5 years old and asked "How many should I give these children?" When there was only one, children tended to designate photos of children who are the same sex and race as theirs.

The consciousness of "belonging to the same group" focuses on superficial points when it is small, but it will make complicated meanings as it grows. For that reason, it becomes important how parents and adults around them can communicate "fairness" and "empathy" to their children.

in Note, Posted by darkhorse_log