The concept of social sex It is highlighting that biological factors also influence the stage when "gender" is formed in children
Separate men and women socially and psychologicallygenderIs a distinction from biological sex "sex" is the concept of gender expressed by the word "masculinity, femininity". Based on the results of surveys based on multiple research results, gender differences are rooted in biological matter, apart from the factor that "society is creating" widely recognized so far It is highlighting that there are elements.
Sex differences in children's toy preferences: A systematic review, meta-regression, and meta-analysis - Todd - 2017 - Infant and Child Development - Wiley Online Library
Gender is not just a social construct, according to scientific research - Quartz
The results of this research were presented by research teams such as Brenda Todd, senior lecturer of psychology at City University London. By collecting data of 16 research results published in the past and meta-analyzing the team, the team not only affects the social background but also the biological background of gender differences that occur at the child's stage I clarified the actual condition that it is affecting.
The data gathered is a summary of the actual situation of interest in toys shown by children all over the world. The total number of samples has reached 1600, and when boys' toys' and 'girls' toys' are prepared, it is investigated which boys and girls will choose respectively. As a result of the analysis, it is clear from the data of various parts of the world that the tendency is uniformly shown that "Boys choose boys 'toys and girls choose girls' toys". If this is indicated by "Effective amount" of statistics, it is a numerical value of "1.03" for boys and "0.9" for girls. It is said that if the effect quantity exceeds "0.8" it can be judged that the effect is great, and both men and women show that the tendency is strong.
And most interesting is that this trendIt was not so different depending on the country and regionIt is said to be at a point. According to Mr. Todd, "There was no tendency for gender differences in children's preferences of male-type and female-type toys to become smaller as gender equality is high in countries." In fact, the results in countries where "gender inequality index" is very low like Sweden and in countries where "gender inequality" such as Hungary and the United States are considered to be great are very similar. In other words, even if society's culture is different, it shows that there is a tendency for boys to choose boys' toys and girls toys for girls naturally from around the world.
It is clear from this fact that the "boyhood likeness" and "girls' likeness" appearing as children are contrary to the idea of "to be decided entirely by social expectations". Based on the idea that gender is determined entirely by social expectations, for example, in the case of Sweden where gender equality is high, we think that the ratio of boys' toys will be the same for men and women Yes. In fact, however, as stated earlier, there is a bias in choice of toys for boys and girls.
In other words, it is becoming clear that the formation of gender in children is something other than social expectation, that is, "biological elements are involved." We aimed to "enhance diversity of academic perspective"Heterodox AcademyMr. Sean Stevens, a social psychologist and research director of society, said, "The way to divide gender formation into" born or raised "is wrong, as far as I know, the human who is chanting either I do not have any behaviorist. "
However, in reality, it is said that criticism from society and political force are often directed to such a way of thinking. Mr. Todd says "The idea that gender is not formed purely socially by many people seems to be uncomfortable", he said. Mr. Todd said, "For people who think this way of thinking," Gender is a social element that reflects social elements and is completely malleable "(= change depending on circumstances)" so-called "leftist It is thought that it is often seen in the power called "the power".
However, although there are biological elements in the background of gender, it does not mean "gender binary" which never divides men and women completely,TransgenderAnd "third gender" also calledNon binarySuch asSexual minoritiesIt does not deny the existence of a person (sexual minority). The sex difference based on many biology is caused by the hormonal environment in the uterus, and the male and female have a mechanism that is significantly different. However, there is even greater fluctuation in each area, Alice Eagley, professor of psychology at Northwestern University said, "Boys have a range of boys, girls have girls' range, biological Although it is said to be, it is not necessarily that it can be completely binary divided into two. "
Mr. Eagle also insists that "policies should not affect science". "Science is seeking the truth of valid findings and findings, regardless of whether you like or not.We are making efforts to find out how biology to humans works. "Because we may be politically wrong" Do we close our minds as scientists? "Eglee said and science tells the need for science to pursue the truth .
"Gender may not be completely socially formed, but it does not mean that gender norms must be forced into traditional things due to biological effects.In science There is nothing contradictory to the value of gender equality, "quoted Quartz's article, which reported this content.