Visualize what you learned by analyzing about 2.2 million combats of game of chess


From the ranking of the world champions class 2861, until the rating 215 on how to go down to that point, someone who visualized what battle is being fought in chess appeared using the game record data left by the skillful players It was.

A Visual Look at 2 Million Chess Games

Buğra FıratHimself wrote a script to visualize chess data and performed data analysis.

The source of the data was chess journal ·The Week in ChessWe published more than 2.2 million game records from 1801 to 2013,RebelA site calledPGN fileIt is a thing. From here is irregular chessChess 960Excluding the game score of 2,197,113 games has been covered.

Included players ranging from 2861 top to 215 down. By the way, the highest rating recorded by Magnus Carlsen, chess world champion as of 2016, is 2882. Shogi known as one of Japan's best chess playersYoshiharu HanyuMaster2359is.

◆ winning percentage
Chess draws a lot more than go and shogi, also known as leading game. According to the data, winning percentage was 38.8% for white (first) win over 850,000 times, and 29.8% for black (late) won 650,000 times. The draw was 660,000 times, 31.4%, more than the backward victory. In addition, 209 cases (0.01%) of the game score did not reach winning / losing / draw.

◆ First Move (first hand) to fifth hand
What kind of hands are often used when going from the white first move (1st step) to the 1st black, 2nd white, 2nd black ... ... and so on to the 5th black in order The one that visualized it. The original data here is for 132,373 wars.

Fifty-six hundred and sixty thousand out of 1.23 million races, indeed 50% of the first move was "e 4" (two pawns in front of the king were put forward).

Subsequently, "d4" (two paws in front of the queen) was used in 430,000 races (33%).

Since it is overwhelmingly minority, even the visualization makes it difficult to see. For example, "b4" (the second pawn from the left two forwards) was used only for 2814 races (0.21%). This opening is "Sokolski Opening"Or" orangutan ".

It is similar to "Sokolsky Opening", but it is the one that puts out a pawn one before, not before twoLarsen · Opening". It was the form that only 2594 races (0.20%) came out in 1,300,000 races.

I will return to the first move. When the game started with "e4" which was the most numerous, "c5" is the most common in black first. this is"Sicilian defenseIt is said that winning percentage of this form is high if you aim for winning when black is the turn in a form called called.

In the trends ahead of this, we are going to exchange pawns with Nf 3, d 6, 3, d 4, cx d 4 with the second hand "Open Sicilian", The fourth Nxd 4, Nf 6, fifth hand Nc 3, a 6 and"Nidolph · VariationIt was a form that entered into. In addition, although the hand branches largely at the second and fifth hands, 44% of the people who choose d 6 against Nf 3 at the second hand. 58% of those who pick a6 against Nc 3 in the fifth hand.

In chess there is a rule called "Castling" that allows King and Luke to move simultaneously with one hand. This can only be done once by each player in one game, and if either one of the rooks which make King / Castling, for example, is moving even once, it is impossible to cast, and there are other pieces in between There are restrictions that it should not be. However, it is very efficient, so many players use it.

In the castling there is the "King side" on the right side of the board and the "Queen side" castering on the left side of the board as seen from the front, but the leading side and the back side are the overwhelming majority of the king side, the white If you do not cast the Queen Side, there are many who did not cast. The following figure, blue shows King Side, Orange is Queen Side, Gray shows No Castling.

Therefore, in about 70% fighting you will be casting on the same side. "Casting to another side is done by each other"Opposite · Castling"Is about one game in 10 races.

As a professional battle it is natural to read the boards of several hands. for that reason,Resign(Throwing out) the game ends often. However, as people who do not lead to that skill will fight to the last minute, it seems that over 50,000 combinations have been recorded on the game record as checks and checkmates.

The check of "shogi" "king" is 17.85%, it is about numbers that I can see so far.

It was 2.34% that it reached to the checkmate that it is impossible to do anything at last. As expected, most people are resigning to this state.

◆ The length of one game
The longest of the data was "456 play" (white 228 hands + 228 blacks). This was done in 2012 and the result seems to have been a draw. The second is "454 play", which also draws.

The game which lasted more than 100 such as 6474 races (0.003%) was extremely few, so when we omitted it as an exception, the mode was black 40th hand. On average there are around 30 to 40 hands, but a small mountain is also created at the 60th white hand. This may be related to the seven-hour session often used in chess "40 hours 2 hours, 1 hour extended to 41st, added 30 minutes to 61st".

◆ Heat Map
Heat maps are also made to show where the respective pieces were fighting well, what kind of movements were many, where they captured the opponent's pieces, and where they checked.

You can see the data on each piece of white / black, further on "whole white" and "whole black". Please try this part by all means by all means.

◆ Breakage of pieces
In chess, convert the value of the piece to 1 pawn, 3 knights, 3 bishops, 5 Luke and 9 Queen, and calculate the current strength and loss of the game exchange. King can not put a value because it is finished when taken.

A graph showing how the fighting force value fluctuates during the game. Although it decreases gradually to 50 hands ("100" on the horizontal axis in the figure), you can see that it does not become a board surface such as taking and taking too many pieces if it is a game that lasts longer than that.

◆ Movement art piece
When Mr. Fırat displayed the locus of "How the piece moved on the board", the one that looked like an art looks like this. In the case of a white King, it does not go far before and the movement of casting is sharp.

If it is a black knight it will be like this. I can understand what kind of movements tend to be.

in Web Service,   Game, Posted by logc_nt