Science how to make "healthy coffee"
Although research results that "coffee is good for the body" are often announced, there are many kinds of coffee, so the espresso and the instant coffee which was kept like beans will affect the body in the same way? Some people wondered about the point. Ars Technica in the news media reveals the science of "what kind of coffee will have a positive impact on the body" to answer such question.
The science behind a good cup of coffee | Ars Technica
"Coffee prevents heart disease, liver disease, diabetes and has the effect of prolonging the life span", etc. Now, various research results that shed effect of coffee are announced. However, even if it says "coffee" in a bite, there are various kinds of beans, roasting condition, way of drawing, water, extraction method, and the variety varies. Many of the studies that are currently being published do not pay attention to the type of coffee but discuss all "coffee" including decafafe, but what kind of coffee's effect is high as you look closely Cow.
◆ What chemicals are included in coffee?
It is thought that the chemical substance contained in coffee plays a big role in the influence of coffee on health. Representative chemical substances contained in coffee are as follows.
The efficacy of caffeine includes arousal, taking fatigue, improving long-term memory ability and cognitive abilities. It is also said that it is good for prevention of metabolic syndrome because it increases metabolic rate and energy consumption. The amount of caffeine effective for dieting is 400 mg a day, depending on how you draw, it is said that it hits 3 to 5 cups of coffee. Note that further ingestion of caffeine may cause anxiety, hypersensitivity, gastrointestinal upset, muscle tremor, etc.
Chlorogenic acid is a kind of polyphenol, and heart disease andType 2 diabetesIt is considered to be useful for prevention. It also has anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties.
Trigonellin is said to be effective in preventing brain aging and dementia. It also helps to suppress activation of cancer cells, to control bacteria, to lower blood cholesterol and blood glucose levels.
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Chlorogenic acid and carwheolDiterpeneA chemical substance that creates coffee bitterness in one species. Although it has the effect of fighting cancer cells and preventing cancer, it is said that it increases cholesterol value on the other hand.
◆ Type of beans
Coffee beans on the market are divided into two main categoriesRobusta CoffeakiWhenArabica coffeakiIt is taken from two kinds of trees. Arabica species are characterized by aroma and well-balanced taste, containing more triglycerin and diterpene. On the other hand, Robusta species is characterized by a high content of caffeine and chlorogenic acid.
How much chemical content differs between Arabica species and Robusta species? A graph showing that it is. The large amount of chlorogenic acid in Robusta species is eye-catching.
◆ Roasting method
There is no fixed way to roast the beans, but many beans are baked for about 2 to 25 minutes at 180 to 250 degrees. Beginning beans are green, but when roasted it turns into brown, which means that we can make delicious coffee we know well. By being roasted, fat and sugar decrease within the beans, amino acids and sugar react, and degradation products cause chain reaction. This will produce a unique scent of coffee.
There are research results that "Deep beans have a slightly smaller amount of caffeine", but there are also research results that "the amount of caffeine does not change depending on the way beans are chosen", and as a whole it is deep or shallow It seems to be seen that the amount of caffeine does not change significantly.
On the other hand, as for chlorogenic acid, which is said to be useful for the prevention of cardiac disease and type 2 diabetes, it is clear in the study of 2013 that deepening decreases the amount. The following is a graph showing how chlorogenic acid changes depending on the roasting condition. The green graph is instant coffee by Nestle, but the amount of chlorogenic acid is slightly higher for both the original and the decafé. It is not sold in Japan where the chlorogenic acid content is highNescafe GreenIs an instant coffee that is said to have efficacy in raw beans.
Some people think that "using distilled water can make delicious coffee", but recent studies have found that those who use hard water containing cations will enrich the taste of coffee. In particular, it seems that calcium and magnesium bring out flavor without changing the taste of coffee.
◆ How to Extract and How to Extract
In general, when coffee beans were finely pulled, the amount of caffeine contained in a cup of coffee increased, and when comparing the coffee that we had for 38 seconds in a household mill and the coffee we only cook for 5 seconds, the former is the latter He said that he contained 2 times caffeine.
There are various ways of putting coffee, such as Turkish style, French press, drip type, espresso etc, but the three points of "pressure" "time" "flow of water" are points.
Espresso is a method of adopting a method of rubbing coffee beans flattened into a container and pressurized with hot water of 91 to 96 degrees. Caffeine has been condensed and according to the research published in 2012, the content of caffeine is 141 to 253 mg per 100 ml, basically since espresso is 30 to 40 ml per cup, take it at once The amount of caffeine is not so large. On the other hand, in case of drip type, the content of caffeine per 100 ml is slightly less than 57 ~ 115 ml, but since it is offered at 8 oz (about 240 ml) per cup, the amount of caffeine is 135 ~ 271 mg and espresso More than that. Also, because it is said that the same thing can be said about chlorogenic acid, if you think that it will take many chemical substances contained in coffee, it can be said that drip type coffee is better than espresso.
The chemical substances such as caffeine and chlorogenic acid are most likely to be contained in the last drop from the coffee maker, so it has not been experimented with in the above study, but if you think that it will take a lot of chemical substances, French press formula It might be the best.
And be careful not to add extra things there if you make coffee. The coffee itself is low in calories, but if you add too much milk, cream or sugar, it may become a mass of calories and fat.
in Junk Food, Posted by logq_fa