# A movie "Quantum Computers Explained" that shows how a quantum computer that is 100 million times faster than a conventional PC moves with the mechanism and breaks down the physical limit

"**Quantum computer**"Is a technology that has the potential to possess performance far superior to conventional computers. Google and NASA established "QuAIL (Quantum Artificial Intelligence Laboratory)", called "world's first commercially available quantum computer"**D-Wave**Development's "**D-Wave 2**"We have been operating and testing the new quantum computer new D-Wave"**D-Wave 2X**"Announced that" combinatorial optimization problem "can be solved up to 100 million times faster than existing computers, surprising the world.

What is worrisome is "What is a quantum computer in the first place?", "What is different from conventional computers?" A movie that answers the question about such a quantum computer "**Quantum Computers Explained**"Is published on YouTube.

**Quantum Computers Explained - Limits of Human Technology - YouTube**

Humanity's technology has long been a fire and sharp stick.

But now they are transforming into power plants and nuclear weapons.

The human brain has made progress.

Since the 1960's the machine continued to progress, becoming smaller and more powerful year by year.

But it also has physical limitations.

What kind of problem occurred is "It was too small". It is this movie that explains this problem from the basics.

The components of the computer are simple, it is made of storage, calculation and control equipment.

Some computers include chip modules, foundation modules, logic gates, and transistors.

The transistor is a simple switch ......

I am shedding and stopping information.

"Information" flowing through it is the smallest unit of data "**bit**"...

It takes a value of 0 or 1.

One bit can only express either 0 or 1, but if there are two or more of them, more complex information can be represented.

And the logic gate is a part that performs simple operation.

For example**AND gate**Send 1 if everything is 1 ... ...

Other than that it is an extremely simple thing to send 0.

However, if this combination is made, addition can be done ... ...

Because multiplication by addition is also possible, every calculation is possible.

There is only a simple set of calculations.

So it seems that 7 year old children gather and calculate. However, as the number increases, it becomes possible to play games such as physics and the legend of Zelda.

When the material becomes smaller, the nature of the quantum appears.

Transistors are electric switches.

Current is the movement of electrons, and the switch blocks this flow.

The size of the current transistor is 14 nanometers.

This is one eighth of the size of the HIV virus ... ...

There is only one fifth of red blood cells.

When it becomes smaller to this size, electrons**Tunnel effect**By

I will pass through the wall.

I can not use ordinary physics in the quantum world, and I can not use machines.

Technology has reached the limit of physics.

A new machine devised to solve this problem is a quantum computer.

Where a bit is used in a conventional computer ......

Quantum computers used quantum features which are particles that can take two states**Qubit**Will be used. This is the state of 0 and 1, it seems to be close to the polarization state of the photon.

Quantum bits can not exist in one state but can exist in two states at the same time ... ...

this"**Superimposition**I call it.

At the moment the photon passes through the polarizer it is determined whether it is vertically polarized or horizontally polarized.

Qubit is considered to be both 0 and 1 unless observed.

The superposition determined at the moment of observation is the liver.

Usually, when representing information with 4 bits ......

I can represent only one of 16 ways.

But with the qubit ...

You can represent all 16 streets at once.

This increase is exponential, and it is possible to parallel 1 million lines using 20 quantum bits.

further**Quantum entanglement**There is a phenomenon called. This means that even if the two qubits are apart ......

It is a phenomenon that it becomes the same state at the same time.

By doing this, you can know the other state by just looking at one.

However, the operation of qubits is difficult.

In the logic gate I have one output on one input ... ...

In the quantum gate of the quantum computer, the input rotates ... ...

Another overlay appears as output.

When the input put in the quantum bit tangles through the quantum gate and observes it ... ...

All the possible calculations are done at the same time there.

However, the result I want to ask for is one of them, so I have a hard time finding it.

However, if you exploit the nature of quantum well, you will be able to calculate ultra-fast.

We do not need quantization in our lives, but in some areas it may be important.

An example is database search.

Conventional database search needs to refer to all elements, so if you try to examine your favorite Pokemon, for example ...

Since it is necessary to refer to data one by one for such as "This is also different, this is also different", it takes time to display.

On the other hand, in the quantum algorithm ...

Searching becomes possible by the square root time.

In other words, the search that took 1 million seconds (about 12 days) will end in only 1000 seconds (16 minutes and 40 seconds).

Information security is the most serious thing.

Currently, the Internet and banks encrypt and protect information by using public key cryptography.

However, public key cryptography can be decrypted if computed.

It is a calculation that takes years at a conventional computer ... ...

With a quantum computer you can do it in a moment.

Quantum computers can also be used for simulation.

Simulation is a field requiring enormous calculation ... ...

It will be useful for analysis of molecular structure etc.

Of course you can use it for research on quantum mechanics itself ...

Medical science will also progress dramatically.

A quantum computer may not be a tool but a revolution.

"Is there a limit to technology?"

The answer is "I do not know if I try," the movie is concluded.

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