Four misconceptions to be revised for autism


News writer Magazine TIME's plan "2011 Best Twitter Feed" was also chosen as a writer'sSteve · SilvermanEntitled "When I am dispelling of myths about autism" is solving one common misunderstanding about autism.

BBC - Future - It's time we dispelled these myths about autism

First of all, "Autism" is a pediatric psychiatrist at John Hopkins UniversityLeo · KanarThe one that I reported in 1943 is the beginning. Although Kanar had grasped the patient's symptoms quite accurately, on the other hand, there was a big misunderstanding that "the mother did not show love or expression of feelings to the child" as to the cause of its occurrence .

And this way of thinking, later psychoanalystBruno BettenheimClaimed "Refrigerator MotherTheory ". It is thought that autism is not caused by acquired factors but is a congenital developmental disorder resulting from the function of brain function, but this "refrigerator mother theory" is an autistic patient and its I gave damage that I can not dispose of my family. Still, there are also mistakes and misunderstandings that have not been modified even now.

◆ 1: A misunderstanding that autism was rare, but now it has become common
In the 1970s, the prevalence of autism was 1 in 10,000 people, but now it is said that 68 people are autistic in 10,000 people. However, this is not due to an increase in autistic patients,Because more people are diagnosed with autismis. In other words, it is not now that it became general, but there have been autistic people since long ago but that diagnosis has not been given.

At that time, there was a patient who visited the diagnosis of autism from South Africa at that time under Leo · Kanar, "There were nine out of ten people returning without diagnosing autism It seems he was proud of having said that. The diagnostic criteria of autism by cannar is extremely severe, and it is known that autism patients may have epilepsy when they are in puberty in modern times, but patients who have epilepsy are I did not diagnose that it is closed. Moreover, since autism was claiming that parents had cause, parents sent children to the facility thinking that they were good, so there are tragedies that children are treated as "experimental materials" so to speak ... He said that. In order to receive diagnosis of autism, we had to visit many times, and only some people could do such a thing.

The situation was improved when her daughter was a severe autistic psychiatristRonna WingIt depends on the appearance of. Wing progressed with his colleague Judith Gould, and the Austrian pediatrician who was not widely knownHans AspergerDiscovered a paper on 'Asperger's syndrome'. Based on this, in 1981 I published a paper entitled "Asperger Syndrome - Clinical Report." Then in the 1990'sAutism spectrumProposal. "Social disability", "communication disorder", and "imagination (imagination) disorder" were listed as diagnostic criteria of the autism spectrum. Wing and Gould have expanded diagnostic criteria for autism with the American Psychiatric Association and the diversity of the autism spectrum has been reflected. It seems that the cannabis thought that autism was a rare psychosis caused by children, but research by Wing et al. Revealed that autism is a life-long developmental disorder.

In 1988 Dustin Hoffman played an adult with autism and the younger brother was played by Tom Cruise "RainmanIt was also a major turning point that was published. Thanks to "Rainman" autism has become widely known to people other than those who specialize in research, and diagnosis of autism has come to be done more often.

But in 1998, a gastroenterologistAndrew · WakefieldAnnounced a thesis on the diagnosis that this diagnosis is increased to "vaccine" that "it becomes autism with the new three-species mixed (MMR) vaccination vaccination". " Although this paper was withdrawn in 2010, there were cases where the number of people who believed in this paper was at that time, measles spread because it did not receive vaccination.

◆ 2: Misunderstanding that autistic patients lack empathic ability
In the news dealing with Asperger's syndrome in the 1990's, autistic peopleSocial sick personThere was sometimes used the expression that it seemed like an empty machine doll as well as it. Similar things appear frequently in clinical literature and media, and attorneys / writers hosting the morning talk show program "Morning Joe" at MSNBCJoe · ScarboroughHe said "Many mass murderers are spectrum disorders (autism)".

Certainly, autistic features include difficulties in making reciprocal relationships in interpersonal relationships and difficulty in communicating. However, this does not necessarily mean "empathic ability" but instead strives to read the emotions of the people around and to give a signal saying that they understand with facial expressions, gestures, and voice color.

On the other hand, Silverman points out that it is also important for neuro-typical (people who are not autistic) to know how autistic people think. That is because "empathy" is not a one way pass, it is a two-way stuff.

◆ 3: Mistakes to all children with autism, aiming to be "not to be noticed as autism"
As an effective treatment and guidance method for developmental disorders "Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)There is what is called. This was a psychologist at the University of California, Los Angeles in the 1980'sOle · Iver · LoversTo "teach" how children behave with autistic children, if they are neurotic children.

Of course, I think that some people said that this was effective, but Julia Basscom, who was adulted after receiving Rovers' style ABA, looked back at that time as "trauma", "I was worried about my life" It was. In the essay of "quiet hand" Basscom said, "I was autistic in girls' age," "If you are autistic it is (ABA) is not abuse, it is treatment," , I am writing a sentence that will smell what ABA has felt like abusing.

Clinical scholar Barry Pleasant said in his book "Uniquely Human: A Different Way of Seeing Autism"We call on parents and clinicians to respect autistic behavior and" to correct autistic behavior "means that children with autism are not" individuals to be understood " Pointed out that it is the same as "problem to be solved". What is more important is to explain what motivates the autistic behavior, what it is the foundation of that type (pattern) is to dig into what it is.

Pleasant is promoting with Emmy · M · Weatherby et al.Social communication(Voluntary communication and formation of human relations) "Emotional adjustment(Adjustment of emotion for learning and behavior) "Exchange type supportSCERTS (SATS) model, which supports developmental improvement in three areas, "Approach to Families, Experts, etc. with Autism Spectrum Disabled Children". Based on a model centered on children and families, experts and caregivers can work on improving communication and interrelationship among people with disabilities in various situations / partners.

SCERTS model (seats model) 1 volume assessment | Japan Culture Science Co., Ltd.

However, ABA does not move children by the circumstances of adults, but respects the subjectivity and intention of children, and treats in a way that does not feel like ABA is abusive like Bathcom There are also some achievements, and various methods other than the SCERTS model have been tried. Even though "autism" has a variety of contents, there is only one correct answer in the treatment method, so that as Silverman, "that the method of treatment is other than ABA" It is considered to indicate.

◆ 4: "Overdiagnosed" that children are autistic of "epidemic disease"
Some autistic features are "paranoidly interested", but these characteristics are those of neuro-static people, although they are of a different degree. The expression "paranoid interest" also means that the word "paranoid" seems negative, but it can be rephrased as "enthusiastically devoted to hobbies."

One of the sayings of Winston Churchill who liked Mr. Wing says that there is a thing that "nature never draws a line, but it makes stain", but like this maxim, autism and non-autism A clear line is not drawn between it and a large gray zone exists. If you meet a person with severe autism, you can understand, in the case of a very light autistic person called Autism Syndrome (BAP), if you do not know that, you are a "strange person There is only the difference which seems to be considered.

In addition, when "self-confidential feature" "paranoid interest" rises, it may lead to superhuman abilities, but as a person with superhuman working ability Yahoo! Marissa Mayer 's CEO is known. Also, Facebook's Mark Zuckerberg is a "oddball" with such characteristics. They are not autistic, but it may be difficult to distinguish them from those who are diagnosed with autism and have special abilities.

Based on this, Silverman points out that autism is not a disorder but a "difference". Although it affects all aspects of life, for the people of the wheelchair, the curb is low or the slope is attached at the border between the sidewalk and the roadway, so that it is "slope" for autistic people It is impossible for society to prepare equivalent things. Silverman quotes the word "TED," the autistic woman Zossia Zachs says, "We need the help of everyone on board to advance the ship of humanity straight ahead". Everyone may face some difficulties, and some help may be found.

Steve Silverman: history of autistic forgotten | TED Talk |

· 2015/10/15
I added about ABA and SCERTS.

in Science, Posted by logc_nt