Why does coffee contain caffeine?
When I want to awake, or when it is important that "a gentleman", drink coffee or energy drinkcaffeineAs you can see from the fact that there are many people supplementing caffeine, it is known that caffeine has a certain effect on human mental condition. So why do coffee contain caffeine, coffeegenomeResearch by the international research team, which has been promoting the analysis of genetic information (total genetic information), revealed this, and the process of interesting evolution and the influence that we are giving to us have become clear.
How Caffeine Evolved to Help Plants Survive and Help People Wake Up - NYTimes.com
The coffee genome providing insight into the convergent evolution of caffeine biosynthesis
It is said that 2600 cups of coffee per second is consumed worldwide, and caffeine contained therein is said to be the psychoactive substance consumed the most in the world. Coffee beans from which coffee is based originate from the continent of AfricaCoffea treeIt is made from the fruit of the fruit, but it is known that caffeine contained in the fruit has an excitatory effect, but in fact it is addictive which causes physical and mental dependence I will.
However, although it is addictive, caffeine is one of the "wisdom to live" that plants have worn in the process of plant evolution. Its mechanism and workRobusta CoffeakiAnalysis by analyzing the gene of the international research teamreportHas been announced.
Caffeine is produced by the actions of enzymes contained in coffee nooki, but its enzyme is contained in every plant and has functions to produce many kinds of synthetic productsMethyltransferaseIt is said to be contained in a group of enzymes called. And the substances produced from this enzyme have various efficacies and sometimes have something like toxicity to attack the natural enemy for that plant and pain relief found in the willow tree It is a kind of agentAcetylsalicylic acidTo be at the heartSalicylic acidIt may be a substance like. Incidentally, acetylsalicylic acid is a trademark of Bayer AGaspirinAlso known as.
Evolution of caffeine began with mutations in the gene of N-methyltransferase and changes in the function of the enzyme, and further evolution has proceeded by repeating mutation and copying afterwards. Caffeine was known to be produced in other plants such as tea and cacao, but when detailed genome analysis was done, the enzyme that coffee has possesses an enzyme having an ancestor different from other plants It became clear that it is a group. Even if it is a living creature flying in the same sky, fingers' bones merge into one and fly and growing wings makes it possible to flyBirds fellow, And the finger's bone stays long as it remains, and is a kind of mammal covered with a skin membrane in betweenBatIt is analogous to having a completely different origin.
With respect to the factors that have evolved independently, not only evolution due to alteration as described above, but also properties that are convenient for inhabited environmentsAdaptationMany are thought to be due to.
When coffee ground leaves wither and falls to the ground, the components of caffeine contained therein penetrated into the surrounding soil. Then, the component of caffeine that melts out suppresses the germination of the seeds dropped by other plants, and as a result, plants other than coffee nochi can not be inhabited.
Also, for small bugs of the body caffeine has a toxic effect when ingested in large quantities, so only individuals of insects with taste not having nature and coffee noodles survive adapting to the environment, as a result coffee trees are inhabited We have succeeded in creating an environment suitable for doing.
In this way, coffee noodles that have acquired defense capabilities by self-creating caffeine with aggression against others, but more interestingly, some plants, such as coffee trees, are more likely to be secreted honey By mixing a small amount of caffeine, we have succeeded in getting even more to live.
ByU.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Southeast Region
Plants plant larvae by secretion of honey and use it as a help to spread pollen, but if the honey contains caffeine a little, the insects who have smoked honey are certain It is said that the brain shows reaction responding to the odor of the plant by being stimulated. Then you will be able to lure insects from the next and will lead pollen to carry out pollen to help expand the power of coffee grounds.
About this result, Dr. Julie A. Mustard of the research team said, "It is an interesting fact that caffeine, a small molecule, has both negative and positive properties." Also, we can say the same for human beings, it is interesting to note that caffeine harms the body when ingested in large quantities and activates the function of the brain if small amounts are ingested.
As you can see, coffee noodles have gained a lot of benefits by having caffeine, but all of it is based on the word "we humans are being manipulated by coffee grounds" that Mr. Mustard tells us It seems to be said that it is consolidated into.
ByUnited Nations Photo