It is like this when listing 100 books & documents that influenced the world
by Flickr: David Blackwell.'s Photostream
It is extremely rare for a single book to be read for decades or hundreds of years, but there are still books that are still being read. Although it cannot be called 'recommended for light reading,' books selected from the perspective of 'had a great influence on human history' from the Bible and Shakespeare to 'unbelievable stories such as Beelzebub's grandson' & The compilation of documents is Martin Seymour Smith's The 100 Most Influential Books Ever Written . As a book review abroad, since this list itself is a good introduction and entrance to humanities, there are many that should be the original books, and if you can obtain and read these 100 books Not only will it give you a sense of accomplishment, but it will bring even more different value to yourself.
The 100 Most Influential Books Ever Written by Martin Seymour-Smith-The Greatest Books
◆ 01: 1948 [New translation]: George Orwell / Translated by Kazuhisa Takahashi
A totalitarian near future dominated by the party led by the <Big Brother>. Winston Smith was a party member at the Bureau of Truth Records and his job was falsifying history. But he was dissatisfied with the regime of perfect obedience. One day, when I met Julia, a free-spirited beauty, I became attracted to the anti-government underground activities that the rumored legendary traitor organized.
'Aeneis', which the Roman poet Wergilius (70--19 BC) worked on during the last decade, was the best Latin epic to compare to Greek 'Iliad' and 'Odyssey'. Had a good reputation. It is said that the main character, Aene Earth, has the image of Augustus, the power of the time, and this work, which was incomplete due to the death of the author, was published with the strong intention of Augustus.
However, the fact that 'Aeneis', which became a best-selling book immediately after it was published, has been loved for a long time even after the Renaissance period in the far later generations cannot be explained simply by the strong recommendation of one powerful person. Rather, it is because this work has abundant charm as a 'reading material' that accurately captures various human problems at the turning point of history and always acquires new readers. For example, Aeneas experiences a tragic encounter with Cartago's queen Dido in the long journey from Troya to Italy, but the poet circulates the protagonist to such sensitive women rather than witches and youkai. At the moment of meeting, it can be said that a new literary horizon was opened, focusing on the heart of an individual. The work, while preserving the epic outline of talking about 'founding Rome', broadly expands the territory of the poet by depicting the disasters caused by human groups such as war and the people suffering under the pressure of society. It's fun.
In Western Europe where 'Aeneis' was read for a long time, it was one of the important sources of spiritual culture that complemented and relativized the Bible. The Roman emotions that overflow there, the Roman beauty reflected in the words, and the world of stories that come alive with every reading must continue to fascinate readers.
However, in Japan, under the influence of the theory that 'Aeneis' was a partly 'imitation of Homer', the unique and unparalleled taste of the work itself compared to the popularity of the title is now Isn't it the current situation that is not well known? This translation attempts to solve this 'misunderstanding' and make 'Aeneis' our classic, so that modern people can truly enjoy it. (Sugimoto/Matoshi)
◆03: Allegorical Expositions of the Holy Laws: Philon of Alexandria
Philon of Alexandria ((Latin: Philon Alexandrinus, Hebrew: יוסף בןפילון האל כסנדרוני, 20/30 BC?-40/45 AD?) was a Roman Emperor Julius Claudius in the Roman Empire, Julius Claudius. For the first time, he applied his abundant knowledge of Greek philosophy to the interpretation of Jewish thought: Philon's work, which incorporated Greek philosophy, was not accepted by the Jews, but rather by the early Christians and became one of the roots of Christian thought. It was
The following review will be very helpful.
It was through this book that I was able to read through the essays. Since I was a student, I picked it up again and again, and I wasn't interested at all. It seemed like an old book. Perhaps other students in the Department of Philosophy were all enthusiastic about such things as existentialism, structuralism, and French and German philosophies.
However, as I grew older, I felt that Western philosophy could not become a living force. At that time, when I read Mr. Tomohide Kure's 'The modern man's jargon', the ally for 'argument' changed and I thought that it was not a preaching, but a book written by the revolutionary at that time I was noticed.
When I became able to read more loosely and personally, I couldn't let go of the sentences that gave me more and more empathy. As Shirakawa Shizuka says, the view that it is a defeated book may be more comfortable from the present appearance.
I don't really know whether I could read it because I was in middle age, or because I was able to read it because I was frustrated in my life, but there are many words that reach deeper in my heart from various books of the world. I knew that it was done. I am grateful that this was also due to the fact that, as Prof. Kanaya mentioned, he was able to improve the 'language' as a translation style.
This book is also translated as 'human intelligence theory', and the contents are as follows according to Wikipedia .
The central subject of this book is human knowledge. It is an important issue to clarify within what extent human knowledge can be certain, and Locke studies this problem in an introspective way. By this, Locke tries to clarify what objects human understanding is suitable for and what is not.
In other words, the purpose of this book, 'Human Enlightenment Theory,' is not to clarify all things, but to study what is related to human actions. Locke aims at observance by identifying the limits of knowledge as a basic viewpoint. The origin of the idea, the nature and range of knowledge acquired by the idea, and the origin of the belief and opinion are examined in order.
The following is very easy to understand as a content review .
The original title of this book is as follows after the second edition.
An Essay on the Principle of Population, or, a View of its past and present effects on human happiness: with an inquiry into our prospects respecting the future removal or mitigation of the evils which it occasions.
If you translate
'An essay on demographic principles or views on past and present impacts on human well-being:
A prospective study of the future elimination and mitigation of vices that have an impact on human well-being.'
About the principle of population
Malthus makes two basic trivial assumptions.
・First, food (living resources) is necessary for human survival.
・Secondly, there is always a heterosexual desire.
The following considerations can be derived from these two assumptions.
If the population is not limited, it will increase geometrically, but living resources will increase only arithmetically.
Since the population growth is unequal to the capacity of the land to produce living resources,
Then, poverty inevitably appears there.
Continuing population growth leads to a continuous shortage of living resources and faces serious poverty problems.
This is because workers are over-supplied and living resources are under-supplied due to the large population.
Due to the difficulty of getting married and feeding the family in such a situation, population growth will be stagnated here.
For the first time, it will be possible to gradually increase the supply of living resources by promoting new businesses with a cheap labor force,
The initial balance between population and living resources will be restored.
In society, history based on this demographic principle is revolted.
However, this repetition may eventually come to a dead end.
Because the earth is finite.
Poor people are poor because they are poor. Doesn't it mean that?
Please let me know
What kind of content it is easy to understand the following review .
A history book depicting the history of the Roman Empire from Tiberius to the fifth Nero by Tacitus, the greatest historian in Rome.
As a famous literary artist, Tacitus's brushwork is full of realism, and it seems that the turbulent era is approaching.
Not to mention Nero, who can be said to be a tyrant, Tacitus mercilessly blames the violence and immorality of the other four, and lamentes the work of the Senate who followed them.
Even if the historical judgment is left for the time being, the tacitus clause is a good narrative that will keep you reading.
Unfortunately, there are many missing parts. It's a pity that it's unclear how the final scene of Nero was drawn.
It is a must-read book for those who are interested in Roman history, but some prior knowledge is still necessary. For those who want to learn more about Roman history.
Zoroastrianism, a fire-breathing religion widely conveyed to Central Asia by the Sogdians of trade through the Silk Road. The scripture 'Avester' is considered to be the oldest religious scripture in the world, and consists of 'Yasuna (festival book)', 'Weedeu (exclamation book)', 'Yasht (praise to the gods)', etc. This book is the only Japanese translation that is said to be the most important and is translated from the original text by carefully selecting mainly the rhymes in Yasuna. Though Zoroastrianism is also believed in the capital city of Chang'an, Changan, its thoughts such as “good and evil dualism” and “monotheism” are said to have greatly influenced Christianity, Western thought, and Buddhism. A must-have book that is indispensable not only as a classic but also as a comparative idea.
Where are humans going? The sage Beelzebub tells us about the history of the Universe, a planetary-earth creature.
It's unclear if it's just a brief description above, but you can see some of the contents by reading the following review .
The story of Beelzebub's grandson is said to be difficult, but compared to general philosophical books, the abstract is clearer, the logic is simple, and you can read it without stress. It seems that good translation has a lot to do with this.
It is not so difficult to understand the important concepts of Gryzhev thought of Heptapara Persinok and Triamajicamno, if read as Uspensky's 'In Search of the Miracle'.
Certainly, between 'The story of Beelzebub's grandson' and 'In search of a miracle', the former premise is a three-brain organism, a three-centered organism, and the latter premise is three central centers (body, astral body, mental body).・There are major differences such as four functions (thinking, emotion, movement, instinct) and five centers (instinct, action, sex, sensation, consciousness). If 'In Search of the Miracle' is functionalist, 'Talking to Beelzebub's grandson' is more anatomical and biological.
However, rather than making such a difference, the true value of 'Talking about Beelzebub's grandson' comes to light when the reader compares it to his/her real life. After all, Gurdjieff wrote in his own words, and his message came to me directly.
For example, the following is said.
'Actually, little boy. When I stayed on earth, I had the opportunity to travel around and see monkeys of various races, at which time they became my second natural habit. After a close observation, it was clear that there was something.
In other words, the entire inner functions of various modern-day monkeys on earth, and the so-called 'mechanical posture', are found in the bodies of some quadrupeds born in their normal form. They are very similar to the ones, and their <facial expression> also has amazing commonality with these quadrupeds.
On the other hand, however, the so-called 'spiritual characteristics' found in all races of monkeys, to the most subtle points, are exactly in line with the 'female' tricerebrate. P.' 185
It may be resentful if women in the world read it, but the similarity between monkeys and women is undeniable.
No matter how beautiful the appearance or the graceful gesture is, if you peel it off, the female's <psychological characteristics> are the same as those of the monkey in the smallest details.
This is the essential understanding that I gained from my own experience, and the truth that I can confidently undertake.
Because of this 'truth,' for me, 'The Story of Beelzebub's Grandson' is a guide to life and a practical book for understanding human relationships.
As it has been said in other reviews, the words in this book strangely come to my mind.
Perhaps the sound will be different for each reader.
But when you are struggling with your life or getting stuck in things, those who read this book may feel as if they got the power to live from Gurdjieff.
Sartore's philosophical main work, which meticulously analyzes the human consciousness (existence) and investigates the dialectic of existence and nothingness. The impact on the world, such as existential psychoanalysis to find a fundamental choice and advocacy of human absolute freedom, is immeasurable. By using Husserl's phenomenological method and Heidegger's approach to present existence analysis, hegel's 'immediate self' and 'anti self' are interpreted as the existence of things and the existence of consciousness, and capture the existence. A timeless masterpiece that can be positioned as a classic of 20th century French philosophy and also the source of various modern thoughts.
Nuclear war, food shortage, environmental destruction... How should we solve the problems facing humanity? Explain that the cause of action is not the mind but the environment, and that a better world is scientifically created. A long-awaited new translation by Skinner, who had a tremendous influence on the world of psychology in the 20th century, calling a ripple by overriding his view of freedom and dignity.
The blog entry 'The pleasure of reading a book: Voltaire 'Candido' Plowing your own garden '' is fairly straightforward to explain.
Innocent Candide purely believes in Leibniz's best theory, which was taught by the philosopher's teacher Dr. Pangros, but reality is filled with misery and hardship, and is filled with painful and severe cases. Being chased from his hometown, he died with his teacher Pangros and his beloved Cunegonde. What is the best state that the best theory tells us? Is it possible to call it the best even in such a difficult and severe reality? Sometimes the good things come around. Reunited with his teacher and mistress who thought he died. However, it quickly breaks apart.
Not only the protagonist and the people around him but also the royal aristocrats, clergy, soldiers, and citizens who appear in the story are being manipulated by the evil spirits of their own ego or being tossed by their destiny. , No one is happy. It appeals to the dark realities of countless European societies such as court corruption, religious trials, wars, pirates, betrayal, fraud, and syphilis.
However, there is one exception. El Dorado is located in the hinterland of South America. Eldorado is a legendary ideal, but Candido is accidentally lost here. The place is full of gold and silver gems, but people don't care. Food is plentiful and people's hearts are rich and merciful. Despite these dreamlike ideals, Candido does not stop at El Dorado, but returns to Europe where the harsh reality awaits. You can feel Voltaire's message that you should look directly at reality, not dreams or visions, and live powerfully there. In fact, Candido confronts the harsh reality in most places except El Dorado, but continues to move forward without being discouraged.
In 1846, Thoreau, 29, was arrested and imprisoned for refusing to pay 'head tax'. Based on that experience, he explains that the government is like a “monster” and that he is “ready to live as a good citizen”.
'Common sense' means 'common sense' in Japanese, and many people probably know this name in world history, but although it is more like a 'pamphlet' than a book, The influence is tremendous, and it has reached 120,000 copies in the first three months of the population of 2.5 million people at that time, and finally reached 500,000 copies, and how much history has been changed by establishing a new 'common sense' The following review is a brief summary.
It is difficult to doubt the common sense and re-question it to create a new common sense. As is true in Japan today, we re-examine the “common sense” that is deeply rooted in society (conventions, recognitions, customs, systems, etc.), dissent the discourse of the opposition, and spun on a new “common sense” to spread it. Going is a very laborious process. This book Thomas Payne's 'Common Sense' succeeded in presenting and accepting a new 'common sense' of independence to society, while revealing the insaneness of the existing 'common sense' under the British colonial system. It is a historical document.
Unravel the proud British Constitution and reveal its structural flaws. The hereditary monarchy refutes the 'common sense' of preventing unnecessary civil war and contributing to peace. Furthermore, the patriotic 'common sense' that Britain is a 'homeland'. The economic 'common sense' that the prosperity of the United States was brought about by the United Kingdom, and that it will continue to be linked to the United Kingdom and will be profitable. Military 'common sense' that the United States cannot fight against British military power even if it is independent. Pain presents the basis for each of these 'common senses' that are widely and deeply rooted in the society, which is blocked by the separation from England, and plainly and persuasively highlights the insaneness. While demonstrating that, I will demonstrate that the Declaration of Independence is the most unreasonable and realistic path for America.
What was thought to be 'common sense' becomes irrational insane over time. That's what Payne tells us, and there's always room for reconsideration in 'common sense.' I feel that this critical rationalism gives us a glimpse of the realism that underpinned the American Revolution. Come along with 'The Federalist' (Iwanami Bunko).
Beginning with the famous phrase 'The history of all societies to date is the history of class struggles,' this Declaration is a fundamental Marxist document that clarified the role of proletariat in class struggles. Drafted by Marx (1818-83) and Engels (1820-95) in 1847, it is a historical document that has guided all proletarian movements since its publication shortly before the February Revolution the following year.
The following review by the Hall of Fame reviewer is well organized as to what they 'confess'.
A book by Augustine that talks about the past from the present perspective while thinking about theological and philosophical things such as God.
In the first volume, I will talk about my childhood to the age of 33. I neglected my studies as a child,
It states that even though it was scholarship, it was a dirty Roman myth, and lament those who are more concerned with grammatical errors than with God.
At the age of 16, stealing with everyone, being absorbed in theatre, being fascinated by Maniism,
He further talks about friends who conspire to steal while also being comforting.
Next, what was not explained well in Maniism, cohabitation, encounter with Bishop Ambrosius of Milan and understanding of Catholicism,
Engage a 10-year-old girl (!), state her thoughts, finally be baptized, and soon her mother Monica died.
From the present Catholic standpoint, he confessed and impeached all aspects of his past.
There is always a figure of mother Monica who wishes to baptize her son and keeps praying for him no matter how much she falls.
It is often surprising for non-religious people living in modern Japan to look at themselves with the strict Catholic eyes.
This book is divided into 9 volumes only in the first volume, and since it is divided into chapters in detail, each chapter is a few pages at most,
You can read it little by little. The letters are small, and the translated text is sometimes difficult to understand (though the original text is difficult to understand),
Why do sentences that start like this end like this? It was often thought that.
The contents of Rousseau's 'confession' are easy to understand in the following reviews .
It is an autobiography of Rousseau (died in 1779) from the years 1712 to 1765 for 53 years from childhood, boys, adolescents, middle-aged and elderly (upper, middle and lower). Recollections before adolescence are literary. It seemed that some kind of sadness and sadness was flowing in the base. It reminds me of conflicting feelings such as sweet and painful. However, he does not run too much for beautification, and frankly describes his qualities, personality, environment, experience, etc. It can be seen that Rousseau, who is worried about human relationships, becomes paranoid after middle age. I have a low status, but I want to appear in the world. However, he falls into a dilemma because he is poor at socializing.
Rousseau's feelings about women are a major pillar of this autobiography. Rousseau is passionate about his love affairs at the time. But how much was his love for his wife Therese? There is the fact that the baby was put in an orphanage. Probably due to financial circumstances, it would not have been possible without guilt. There is Rousseau's justification, but it should have been morally avoided. I didn't leave my head asking, 'Why?' The trouble of Rousseau and Therese can be seen. The greatness of Rousseau's ideas is admitted. However, the adequacy of this act has to be questioned. Maybe there is a secret that is not mentioned in the 'confession'. The confession speaks for itself in a naked manner, but the description of the orphanage is very important. However, it may be a painful past in which the crying can be suppressed only by speaking quietly. In Rousseau's life, there is one side of the idealist and one side of suffering from life and letting go of the baby. It made me think about the multifaceted nature of human beings.
It is a complete collection of 12 volumes published by Oxford University Press, and in Japan, Iwanami Shoten will issue a 'new edition Aristotle complete collection 20 volumes + separate volume' as a 100th anniversary commemorative publication. This is the first time in 40 years since the 'Aristotle Complete Works' (17 volumes) published from 1964 to 1973. ' New Edition Aristotle Complete Works Volume 1 'Category Theory Proposition' ' ' New Edition Aristotle Complete Volume 5 'About Heaven to Create and Disappear' ', and ' New Edition Aristotle Complete Volume 7 'About Souls Natural Science Small An article ' ' will be published on February 7, 2014.
◆ 19: Lecture on Empirical Philosophy : Auguste Comte
Comte is known for proposing the three-step law at the beginning of this book. The law of three stages discusses that every concept or knowledge goes through three stages. According to Comte, the human spirit has become a empirical stage through theological and metaphysical stages, and each of these stages has its own characteristic way of thinking. First of all, at the theological stage, all knowledge is explained by direct will from a religious and theological point of view. At the metaphysical stage, abstraction and personalization are performed and explained as objects. And at the empirical stage, phenomena are explained by general rules based on the observation of things. Through these stages, Comte classifies science by grasping the stage of new human intelligence development. Comte believed that the classification needed to be a representation of the general facts found by comparing phenomena. Comte was arranged by mathematics first, second astronomy, third physics, fourth chemistry, fifth biology, and sixth sociology. Sociology here is the name that Comte first called, sociology has sociology as order and sociology as development, the former studies society as an organism, and the latter has three stages. It is positioned as an academic discipline that studies social development that has developed according to the law of. Concerning social development, Comte believed that at the theological stage, society was at the military stage, at the metaphysical stage at the legal stage, and at the empirical stage at the industrial stage.
Humans have words, and when they connect words, they think of things, but Kant thoroughly pursued human ability, that is, ability called 'reason', and how to use it. This is because each human being's way of life depends on how he or she thinks of things in his own reason. Reason works not only when seeking scientific knowledge, but also when thinking about what morality is, what beauty is, and what God and religion are. In order to avoid mistakes that absolutely regard only scientific knowledge and to avoid falling into superstition and fanaticism, it is necessary to make reason work properly in all these situations. Kant walked the path of criticism of reason while aiming to secure human freedom and dignity.
A pioneering book that attempts to capture the functions of the mind, life and society as a dynamic control system. The title of this book itself created a new academic field and had a great impact not only in the field of natural science but also in the field of social science. Even now, it is the basis of research methodologies for analyzing general nonlinear phenomena such as artificial intelligence, cognitive science, chaos and self-organization.
Why did the Roman Empire, which had the greatest prints in the ancient European world, and was proud of its many years of extinction? A timeless solution to this 'eternal question that never disappears'-a complete translation of a great history book that will be a masterpiece of 18th-century British historian E. Gibbon We make the appearance of the Roman Empire's prints, military strength, prosperity, and common imperial commons, Caracalla, Domitianus, and Elagabalus, which are signs of imperial decline.
The value of this book is argued as follows by the following review as ' the value of the translation .'
I wonder if it's hard for us to feel it,
Without intervening the will of a personal absolute person such as God,
Explaining the world means
In Western Europe, where the Christian era began,
It was a tremendously maverick and blasphemous way of thinking that would break the language.
It is impossible. The meaning of morality is gone.
Like Plato, Aristotle, and Protinos, who were often treated heretics
Even the three major Greek philosophers assumed that they were like God.
In that, we draw out ideas that lead to modern natural science,
Along with Epicross, it continued to be Hissori and its precious source
The importance of this work by Lucretius is enormous.
It was a book that continued to support the hearts of potentially atheist and natural scientists.
From the point of view of humanism, the splendor of its style is also
It would have given this book a high value and helped promote the emergence of modern natural science.
The translator, Katsuhiko Higuchi, was a legend in his Latin ability,
Unfortunately, he was also known for the amount of work that was stoic, perhaps because of perfectionism.
This book can be said to be valuable as one of Professor Higuchi's jobs.
Buddha's Golden Word Book, which is composed of 423 beautiful poems, is the oldest poetry in the scriptures and is a source of Buddhism and an introductory book. At the end of the book, a modern translation and commentary of the teacher's youth
The contents are easy to understand the following 50 Hall of Fame reviewers and commentary on the Top 50 reviewers.
The author (translator), in the explanation,
'The bible you should have in everybody's pocket'
Introduced, this is a very legible scripture for anyone.
If it is a Bible (the Bible), 'Proverbs (a book in the Old Testament)' in it
It looks like.
The author's translation
A modern translation is available. Since the numbers are attached,
You can easily go back and forth between them.
Selflessness (there is no such thing as 'self'), ruthlessness,
There are many Buddhist familiar sentences such as life suffering...
The following words have the meaning of valuing yourself, and I feel familiar to them.
(Hoguryo Sutra 160 translated by Tomomatsu)
Onore no yorube
Take care of yourself
Indeed, the self is the rescuer of the self.
Who on earth can be a rescuer outside of this self?
It is because of our well-controlled self that we can find other worthless rescuers.
In addition, I also have a book called 'Lecture Sutra Lecture' by the same author, Kodansha Academic Bunko,
Most of this is explained by Mr. Tomomatsu, and the full text of Hokkei is not included (only a few).
Anyway, it is convincing empirical content, regardless of the reader's religion type,
It is easy for beginners to understand, and we recommend it to those who are interested.
A timeless masterpiece that elucidated the basics of the Copernicus system and at the same time established a new scientific methodology. It clearly illustrates the challenges and barriers of various Scholastic systems that Galilei had to confront for the ground motion theory argument and how they were overcome. It is a great book that announces the dawn of modern science and a declaration of the scientific revolution.
The contents are mentioned in the article ' History of English-A compilation of dictionaries ' on the following site.
Born as the son of a poor bookstore, Samuel Johnson had a hard time because his childhood illness caused him to have poor eyesight and hearing, and was forced to drop out of a university he had entered due to financial reasons. It seems that In addition to compiling a dictionary, he also worked as a poet, essayist and literary critic. The Johnson published the A Dictionary of the English Language in 1755. A major feature is that it contains more than 40,000 words and uses citations from prominent authors such as Shakespeare and Milton to explain the meaning of the words. It is said that the number of citations is as high as 114,000, and the method of incorporating 'citations' into the dictionary had a great influence on the compilation of the dictionary in posterity. Moreover, unlike the French dictionary compiled by enormous numbers of scholars, it was completed almost by myself using only a few assistants for about 9 years until it was published. Is truly praise and admiration. Although there have been dictionary publications up to that point, they far surpass other dictionaries in terms of content, and it is safe to say that this is the very first full-scale dictionary. Until the Oxford English Dictionary was published at the end of the 19th century, it maintained its absolute status as an authoritative dictionary.
The following review is very good.
We cannot say that today's Descartes book is prejudicial.
This book is known by the overly famous word 'I think. Therefore, I am.' It is read along with the thoughts of each reader. It is a book destined to be read that way.
When I start thinking about it as a philosopher's and a classical book, I'm confused that the opening part is not very philosophical.
The book consists of six parts, but the first three parts are, so to speak, the history of the origin of Descartes and the discovery of the basic ideas of his philosophy developed in the fourth part. ing.
The fourth part is the most known part of the book, which is the proposition 'I think. Therefore I am.' followed by the proposition of the existence of God. It's only 13 pages in the Japanese translation, and it's so light that it's a little unclear.
The fifth part develops ideas for nature based on the proposition presented in the fourth part. In particular, the description of the structure of the heart is dominant. This is a good representation of Descartes' idea of the human and animal bodies as machines.
Part 6 explains the process leading up to the publication of this book, moving to more realistic content than the fundamental one, as in the third part.
Classics are sometimes like this. In terms of this book, only 13 pages in Part 4 made this book so famous. However, if you read it again, you can read other parts interestingly.
'Kamikyoku' is a story in which the poet Dante fulfills his journey on the bank as it is. The story of 'Hell' begins on the holy Thursday of 1300 (April 7th) when 35-year-old Dante wanders into the dark forest of alleged sin. Guided by the Latin poet Wergilius, the first territory (hell) where people who have not been baptized are punished for about one day and night, and the hell who are punished for various sins such as lust, heresy, and betrayal It goes around.
The above translations are all 6 volumes, but it is easy to understand the review of ' the greatest and most depressing (?) book ' below as to what the content is finished.
The title above is Dostoevsky's remark, but it is a novel full of humor that can't be called 'depressed'.
Don Quijote, who rushed without listening to the words of his squire, fell into tatters and was saved by Sancho.
He is not interested in chivalry or honor, but is a gentle share of the success of his master, a kind-hearted Sancho Pansa who dreams of the lord of the island.
A novel that is the ancestor of modern novels in which the inner reality and human figure formation are also deeply digged.
This book was written by translator Ushijima in 'Don Quixote,' which is a classic masterpiece that can only be heard and is not actually read.
Considering the above facts, he is easy to read, and the results of his Cervantes research are shown in his translation,
He pays attention to what makes the story smoother.
If you find it boring even if you're reading it for redundancy, feel free to skip it.
Even so, the fun of this novel will be fully communicated, and this redundant description and episode is customary at the time.
Cervantes himself is premised on having the 'distraction' read in the preamble,
Why don't you relax and read it?
By the way, the famous scene of attacking a windmill is recorded in <Part 1>.
The explanation of what it is like is summarized in detail in 'What or this? ' on Wikipedia, and it is as follows.
The preface begins with the way Victor Eremita obtained two memos from a desk drawer and described how they were published. The completely different thoughts are shown in contrast in the notes of A, who has had an aesthetic life, and the notes of B, who chose an ethical life.
The aesthetic life described in A's note includes the following: There is a difference in the concept of sin in tragedy between modern tragedy and classical tragedy. Greek tragedy is a sin due to external conflict, but tragedy in modern times like Antigoné is an internal guilt consciousness. To consider. Regarding human sorrow, it also deals with remorseful sorrow that cannot be expressed externally by art. He argues that those who cannot live the present in hope because they are hindered by recollection about the most unfortunate humans or who live the present in recollection because they are hindered by hope. Kirkegaard draws the daughter's shallow umbrella, which she believes is the real thing, and her daughter abandons her first love man and marries another, and also a farmer sowing seeds while changing lands to increase crop yields .. The aesthetic life in pursuit of pleasure always changes the object by seeking stimulation, and becomes boring when there is no change. Boring occurs based on the feeling of emptiness, which causes 'dizziness' in humans. In order to avoid it, human beings live in a whim, seeking new distractions one after another. From the perspective of Kirkegaard, despair is the end of an aesthetic life.
In B's note, it is written as a letter to A's author, a friend who opens up his aesthetic life. First of all, regarding the aesthetic value of marriage, it is stated that the real task of marriage is to combine the element of lust with a strict internality, and frankness and honesty are the conditions for marriage. We must never marry with a secret, and internal honesty is important in marriage love, and we must be able to maintain eternity against any deterioration over time. In other words, human beings have to choose one of 'whether or not' in their lives, and it is argued that they choose ethical life that contradicts it with aesthetic life. This choice can be freely made, and the free decision fulfills the obligation of ethical life and one's mission. It is shown that a human being who cannot realize the universal human being realizes himself as an exceptional person who has reached the limit of individuality, and acquires the inwardness corresponding to it.
Although it is a very famous book in world history, the content of the book is very convincing as pointed out by the following review 'It was unexpectedly unbalanced content '.
This book is one of a kind that is preceded only by its name, but has never actually been read.
When I actually read it, I was surprised at the variety of contents.
It can be said that there is no sense of unity, and I got the impression that the author of each item left it to them.
It's nice to have a long introduction by Didero, but the same Didero manufacturer has 10 pages, and the item about peace is only 4 pages.
On the other hand, the item of luxury is as many as 36 pages.
From the viewpoint of 'enlightenment thought', the imbalance cannot be understood by modern people.
The most surprising thing was the item of technology. It emphasized the importance of technologies that tend to be seen lower than science.
A desire to recognize the structure of the world or all beings, and a longing to identify oneself as the supreme one... A philosophical book that hopes to 'approach and unite with God above all things.
Immediately after the French Revolution in 1793, Godwin's most successful work, Political Justice, and its Influence on General Virtue and Happiness, was translated literally into: 'Political Justice and its Impact on General Virtue and Happiness.' )) was published in two quarter-fold editions at a price of only 3 guineas. Immediately the author became known as the most influential social philosopher of the time, and the book was given the rank of Milton's Areopagitica, Rock's Theory of Education, and Rousseau's Emile. Young poets like Saudi, Coleridge, and Wordsworth, who were college students at the time, devoured the book to feed their political education. 'Political Justice' has been published in four editions, the aftermath of the French Revolution has spread in Britain, and Prime Minister Pitt has begun to put down the turmoil, and Godwin has eased attacks on government and property after the second edition.
Michel de Montaigne is a 16th century French thinker and moralist. His 'Esse' is a culmination of classical knowledge, and at the same time, it has been accepted as an educational book for intellectuals for a long time. It influences thinkers and is read by many as a classic classic even today.
The phrase 'What do I know (ku se ju)?' is a Montaigne word, but he humbly acknowledges that there is a limit to human reason, judgment, and knowledge. It often expresses the idea of Montaigne who tried to pursue the truth without fearing.
In the new translation, translator Miyashita wrote as follows. 'My basic policy is to try to write a translated text that can be read in a refreshing mood. Of course, Montaigne himself does not write in a neat manner, so this area is quite a tightrope walk. It's unavoidable that I can't help but nevertheless, I want to somehow build a fresh translation to ensure that the book of this life is passed on to the next generation.'
Here's an example: 'I'm not sure where death is waiting, so let's wait everywhere. Thinking about death in advance is nothing but thinking about freedom. Those who learn to die forget the slave's heart. It is a person who was able to do it.'
Bertrand Russell says. 'No other philosopher is as noble and lovable as Spinoza. It's also ethically the best.' As an atheist, Spinoza had long been reluctant to say his name for some time after his death. But he came back up. Lessing, Goethe, Novalis, Heine. Romantic poets, George Elliot. And in the 20th century, Freud, Joyce, Borges, Druze...
Among other works, 'Etika' attracts readers. While preaching God = nature, 'Ethica' demonstrates human freedom and true happiness in a thrilling manner in the form of Euclidean geometry. A new translation of this great classic that concludes with the conclusion that 'everything that has sternness is rare but difficult.'
This book establishes the status of so-called 'mathematics' , which includes Euclidean geometry as its content, and first of all, ' What is Euclidean 'original theory'-a classic of mathematics read for 2,000 years '? Reading the contents should be easier to understand as follows.
'There is no royal road in geometry' is known as Euclid's saying. Permanently immortal is the book 'Original', which determined the style of today's mathematical books: propositions, theorems, and proofs. The too lean description in this book, on the contrary, gives rise to many mysteries and causes many controversies of ancient times. Euclidean himself is also a mystery. Who on earth did you try to write what? While reading the original text, we approach the truth.
It is a Mendel book that found the law of 'heredity' that must be learned in high school biology, and because it is extremely plainly written, it is very easy to read.
Mendel (1822-84) conducted a pea mating experiment in the garden of a monastery in Brno, inspired by artificial mating to produce new cultivars. This rigorous examination of highly scientifically carried out experiments was of no value at the time, was rediscovered in 1900, and bears Mendel's name for the underlying law that defines the basis of genetics. It became a thing.
The content is discussed in detail in the reviews below.
From the answers of the questionnaire that the author gave to the 200 students who graduated 15 years after graduating from women's college, how disagreement was there between the actual life of women and the image they were trying to adapt to, and why? It is a book that specifically describes based on various actual examples and facts. As a college student at this time, I was shocked at the fact that the housewife in my long-awaited warm 'my home' in the United States was never happy.
Praise for femininity Freud's motherhood myths Women as consumers
The various troubles and sufferings of a woman who became a housewife by being captured by these various traps are clearly depicted. How to avoid the desire to grow, which is an essential human desire, is the basis of how to live femininely, and people who praise 'femininity' can only become a true 'woman'. That's what most women do.・Don't be devoted to anything ・Living through other people So many American women struggle in this 'trap'.
In particular, the following passage was deeply shocked: People have to know how badly a housewife can give a woman a sense of innocence. For a talented modern woman, she is a housewife. In a sense, a woman who adapted as a housewife and grew up in hopes of 'just wanting to be a housewife' was the number of people who lived in the Nazi camp waiting for death only. It can be said that they are destined to have a million people. '
・1 Tempest (first appearance)
・2 two gentlemen of Verona (first appearance)
・3 Windsor's Cheerful Wives
・A shaku for 4 shaku (first appearance)
・5 Mistakes comedy (first appearance)
・7 Broken love
・8 Summer night dreams
・9 Venice Merchant
・10 As you like (first appearance)
・11 Shrew horses (first appearance)
・12 If all is well, everything is good (first appearance)
・13 12 nights (first appearance)
・14 winter story (first appearance)
・15 John King (First appearance)
・16 Richard II
・17 Henry IV Part 1
・18 Henry IV Part 2
・19 Henry V
・20 Henry VI, Part 1 (First appearance)
・21 Henry VI, Part 2
・22 Henry VI, Part 3
・23 Richard III
・24 Henry VIII (first appearance)
・25 Troy Ras and Cressida
・26 Coriolanus (first appearance)
・27 Titus Andronikas
・28 Romeo and Juliet
・29 Athens Timon (first appearance)
・30 Julius Caesar (first appearance)
・31 Macbeth (first appearance)
・33 Lear King
・35 Antony and Cleopatra (first appearance)
・36 Cymbeline (first appearance)
According to ' 17 Spencer Boom ', what kind of book it is is as follows.
A philosophical book at the beginning of the comprehensive system that discusses the principles of evolution of the entire universe. Soseki Natsume was also borrowed from a friend when he was a university student.
The following review by the Top 1000 Reviewers touches on the content.
It seems that the translation of the fifth book is finally completed, so I will read it from this first book.
The story is about the time when Karl V of the Habsburgs and Francois I of the Valois were fighting over Italy.
'To Punchnosuke, Bichugusou-kun, Buutaro, Mureno-chan and Kimi-chan's Kita-no-ko fall on the rags and on top of us. , St. Antonius fever would burn your mouth with all your mouth open, but you wouldn't leave it!'
I like this skill of word play, a sense of modern language that the old Watanabe translation does not have!
In the first half, there was a lot of poop talk and pissing, and fart continued, but the story suddenly became serious after the picrocol war, which started as a skirmish between the redneck people. I feel. But that's what it's all about, and if you win the war, the story of Abo will be repeated.
A nun and an adulterer who die in an erection die at the time...
It was decided that the convent could be put in the convent with one eye, a kid, a sickness, a bus, a bastard, a mad woman, a kuru kurupa, a disabled person, a deformity and a market price... All you want to say!
Then, whether or not he said so much, at the end, he made a stupid monastery to destroy him, the man named Gargantua.
You can't sell things, you don't have a job-why the market can fail with laissez-faire. In the midst of the global recession, Keynes thoroughly looked at the errors and limitations of classical economics, which he was familiar with, and finally reached the basis of modern economics. The ideal form of social science that radically updates the theory facing the real world. An important paper of Hicks, which formulated the outline of this book, was also accepted.
The four Gospels at the beginning of the New Testament recorded the behavior of Jesus Christ and announced it as 'joyful welcome, good news.' In the text edition, the translator who devoted himself to the realization of the colloquial translation was epoch-making with a meticulous ingenuity for the sake of accuracy and comprehension, without being obsessed with church tradition. It is a personal translation of the Bible.
According to Wikipedia's ' Moché Ben-Maimone ', the contents are as follows.
The book 'Guide for the Lost People' was a call to philosophers who lost their faith, and the purpose was to make Aristotle and Jewish theology peaceful. He reasoned about Jewish theology by attempting to interpret the hidden meaning of Torah's scriptures with the views of the Aristotle and the Arab philosophers such as Farrahby and Ibn Siner. He says that Aristotle is the authority on the world under the moon, but revelation is the authority on the heavenly world. However, in the knowledge of God, philosophy and revelation are united, and pursuit of truth is a religious duty. In the Islamic world, a controversial and conservative Jewish group incinerated Moshe's Philosophy. Although the idea was criticized for being too rational, it influenced posterity as a precursor to the philosophical interpretation of the Bible.
Later, 'Guide for the Lost People' was translated into Latin and received high praise from Christian theologians such as Albertus Magnus, Thomas Aquinas and Eckhart.
Six planets, including the earth, move around the sun while playing harmonic sounds!
The results of 'New Astronomy' (1609), which established the first and second laws in collaboration with Tycho Brahe, and the universe model with five regular polyhedrons advocated in the virgin work 'Mystery of the Universe' (1596). A historical masterpiece that was integrated and established the third law. The first complete translation in Japan from the Latin original.
Treasures in the history of European thought are revived for almost 400 years.
◆46: Hebrew Bible
According to the ' Hebrew Scriptures ' of Wikipedia, the contents are as follows.
The Hebrew Bible (Hebrew: תַּנַ'ךְ, תּוֹרָה, נביאיםו(־)כתובים) is the Jewish Bible. Tanaha, Mikuler. The Bible is written in Biblical Hebrew and is a Jewish 'Bible canon'. The first five books (Hebrew: חֻמָשׁ, Pentateuch, narrowly-named 'Torah') and the entire Tanaf (Torah, Hebrew: תּוֹרָה) are written in: Torah, Written Law)” and is commonly referred to as the “Dual Torah” (Hebrew: תּוֹרָה שֶׁ(־)בְּעַל־ פֶּה, Oral Law). “Torah (תּוֹרָה) ” is the meaning of teaching, instruction, theory, and theory, and arithmetic (תּוֹרַת הַ րրրրրրրրրրրրրրրրրրրրրրրրրրրրրրրրրրրրրրրրրրրրրր'' onto (')] הַכָּרָה), which is also a common noun. Oral Torah has become synonymous with the Talmud ('learning').
The first five books are “Chumash (חֻמָשׁ), or in terms that include Christian nuances, are “Pentateuch, Five Books of Moses (Hebrew: חֲמִ שָּׁה חֻמְשֵ שעעעעעעעעשעעשעעעעעעעת שעשעעשעעעעעש עעשעשעעשאה (חֻמְש עעעעעעת שעעש ש)'. The translation 'Bible (ביבליה)' itself already contains Christian nuances). The original Hebrew word for 'holy' (קֹ דֶשׁ, קָדוֹשׁ, קִ דּוּשׁ) means special, special, different, dedicated, dedicated, dedicated, spent.
Wikipedia's ' Hipocrates Complete Works ' describes what kind of book it is.
'The Complete Collection of Hippocrates' (also known as 'Corpus Hippocraticum' or 'Collection of Hippocrates') is a compilation of more than 70 medical texts written in the Ionian dialect of the ancient Greek, compiled around the 3rd century BC. It is more than 100 years since the death of Hippocrates until the compilation, and since all the documents are anonymous, there is no answer to the question of how much Hippocrates was involved in the document. It contains many books by doctors of the Hippocratic school (Kos school), but also books that are considered to be Knidos and other schools. There is also a theory that the maximum number of authors in the entire collection is 19. It is unclear whether the manuscripts of the Kos Island school library were compiled over the Alexandria Library or the anonymous medical documents distributed in the public were stored in the Alexandria Library, but at the end of the 3rd century BC. By then, a group of medical writings that had been recognized as Hippocrates' theories had been formed, and became a complete collection in a form that is transmitted today.
The complete Hippocrates collection contains various types of documents in random order, including clinical records, medical textbooks, lecture notes, research notes, and philosophical essays, intended for a wide range of readers from medical experts to outsiders. ing. Well-known documents include 'Oath of Hippocrates', 'Prognosis', 'Climate of Acute Illness', 'Proverbs', 'About Air, Water, Place', 'Prevalence', 'About Sacred Disease', 'Old'. About medical techniques”. However, according to editor W. Jones of the 'Hipocrates Selection' (Rove version), only 1 and 3 of 'Prognosis', 'Acute Disease Curatives', and 'Epic Epidemic' are 'Greek great by the same person. 'A scientific paper without superstition and philosophical residue, written before the passage of time'.
You can understand what kind of book it is by reading the following reviews .
'Egypt is a gift of the Nile' (page 164 of this book) is a famous phrase that appears almost always in history textbooks, and it alone tells the value of this book. It is a nostalgic story that Cicero called the 'father of history', an ancient Roman politician, and an excellent history book that covers a wide variety of contents and covers geography and customs of various places. Without this, the history of the ancient Greek Orient cannot be told.
Herodotus's stance in this history book was feared that 'the events of the human world would be forgotten with the passage of time,' and history would be replaced as 'the battle of the gods' like the Trojan War and forgotten. It seems that Herodotus was truly the 'history of history' in that respect.
For this reason, the beginning takes the form of writing both the origins of the case where the Trojan war occurs with both the arguments, and the historical stance of Herodotus who tried to eliminate it by striving for the mythology It can be said that it is appearing.
After that, the topic shifted to the trigger of the Persian War, beginning with the story of the Kingdom of Redua, which will be destroyed by the emerging country Persia, and ending with the story of Cyrus II, the founder of the Persian Empire, Volume 1 'Cleio Vol. ]. Volume 2 'Euterpe's Volume' is about Egyptian customs and history before being conquered by Persia. Volume 3 'Taleia's Volume' is about to conquer Egypt by Persia.
Also, the first sentence very much symbolizes the character of this book, which is mentioned in the following review .
Written by a Greek in the 5th century BC, the book begins with the moving text: 'This book shows that Herodotus, from Halikarnassus, was forgotten about the events of the human world and that the Greeks and Gentiles (Barbalois) had great marvelous traces---and in particular, what caused both. As for the circumstances that led to the battle from the beginning ---, it is the one that he investigated himself, fearing that it would eventually become unknown to the people of the world.'
Here, the idea of investigating, describing, and leaving the facts of the past and present, fearing that they will not be known to future generations, is clearly expressed. Has been done. I think this is truly amazing human intelligence. However, 2500 years after that, although knowledge and wealth have certainly increased, it seems that the intelligence has not been refined.
The first volume distinguishes between historical facts and ancient folklore and hearsays from others over 100 years ago from the author's time, and the Greek region, this region from Lydia to Persia, Egypt, etc. It describes the history of the Persian War, referring to its history and geography in the developed regions of Africa, beyond Africa and India and beyond the Caucasus.
I think it would be interesting to read it as a story, but the individual events that are being told, the views of the people at that time, and the opinions of Herodotus would not be so interesting if the culture of history deepened.
The following review shows the contents well, and its position in world history is easy to understand.
The author of J. Nye's standard textbook 'International Conflict', which is the authority of international relations, appears at the beginning of the book, which is the most classic of international relations. This reprint by Iwanami Shoten is extremely welcome.
Well, Nye is reading this book with a focus on diplomacy, of course, but it's possible that it's read from a different perspective, and I think that's the fun of classics.
My question was, 'Why didn't the Spartans focus on Athens?' There were three reasons why it was not possible. First, there was no full-time army. The siege of Athens will take several years. It is difficult to keep the military attached for such a period. However, it could not be the biggest reason because it was conducting military operations including wintering in other regions. The other is diplomacy with allies. Naturally, the siege costs a huge amount of warfare, so it is necessary to bear it, to agree on the Athens siege operation itself, and other costs. The last is the issue of logistics. Perhaps the biggest problem in this era was that the cost of 'feeding' the army itself was more difficult than organizing the army itself. This is understandable considering that one of the purposes of the short-term expedition to Athens was the destruction of fields.
Perhaps this book is read as 'education' in many military schools even today, but what I remember here is that the Japanese military thought that this logistics was neglected until the end. (It goes without saying that another important element is intelligence--intelligence--as well as technological innovation--innovation.) Even in the 'Three Kingdoms', it is clearly shown that the reason why Akira Zhugetsu failed to capture Wei until the end was the problem of this logistics.
I think that having a broad historical perspective, not only for military personnel, is good for everyone.
The following review by the Top 1000 Reviewers, ' People only grow in relationships with others ' is very straightforward.
Buber sees the world as a relationship between each person and other beings. On top of that, there are two types in the world.
One is, for example, the world of [waananji], which is a world where oneself and the subject are deeply connected, such as relationships with lovers, families, and close friends.
The other is the world of experience, the world of time and space, and the world of seeking knowledge about the nature of things. The world of [that].
Buber says that humans become [we] through their relationship with [nanji]. It presents a completely different view of the world from the philosophers of Descartes and others who think the human and the world in opposition.
Buber, a religionist, says that the relationship between God and humans is also a [wow] relationship.
In addition, modern society warns that the world of [Nanji] should be regained because it is inevitably designed to fall into the world of [It].
In Japan, the word 'Kizuna' became popular after 3/11, but that's exactly what we mean. We can often learn from this book.
The following reviews give a quick overview.
I was wondering why among the four books and five sutras, the I Ching of the fortune-telling is included.
I happened to read about the I Ching in a book by Jung and then I read it with interest because it is one of the 4 books and 5 sutras.
Jung may have used the term synchronicity to think of it as a connection to a universal collective unconscious, or it might have been called a road in China, but the way of life is how to follow fate. I feel that the hint of 'is stuck in here.'
If you read this book, is it actually a fortune telling? You can also see how to do it (although it's Iwanami!!). I will try it from time to time, and I get the message that I should live a good and polite way in good and bad conditions.
It is stated in this book that if you become a master of I Ching, you will not make it easy. The master interprets it as a story that he can live according to his destiny.
You can tell how amazing the book is by reading the remarks published in April 1986.
We don't matter 'why Leibnitz now'. For us, Leibnitz is neither the 'now' person nor the 'now' problem. It's a 'person' and a 'problem' anytime, anywhere. The 17th century is called the 'era of genius'. Leibniz was the most genius of the genius era. Its wisdom and transparency are unmatched in the east and west of ancient times. The publication of the complete collection was started in Germany immediately after World War I, but it has not been completed yet, and it will take 100 years from now.
Getting to know Leibnitz's achievements is very difficult. Not only is there a large amount of writing and a special character, but it is also written in several different languages. The books provided to scholars were written in Latin, conversations with the court's associates in French, and writings directed to a small number of intellectuals in their own country in German. If you want to read the Leibnitz in text, you have to speak three languages. If reliable translations are at his disposal, his work will be accessible to more people.
The content of the contents is clearly shown in the following reviews .
According to Calvin, human beings were all corrupt and God was absolutely good. And, according to the schedule theory, our thoughts and actions do not affect the choice of God, and God chooses those who are chosen by sovereignty and those who are abandoned. When God's grace approaches humans, sinners (who have the sins that have been handed down since Adam) cannot refuse it. Also, those who were saved by God were never destined for destruction, but were saved forever. The death of the cross of Christ has infinite power, but it only expresses it to those who are saved and go to heaven. We must consider here one form of God's persona, the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit wrote the Bible. In other words, John and Paul did not write the Bible, but they inspired John and Paul and wrote what they had to write. However, it does describe what the Bible writer has to say, not being automatically written by dictation, etc., but without destroying their personality. Calvin was a good organizational theologian, but when he wrote the Essentials of Christianity, he sometimes transcended the Bible. However, his theory of Biblical analogy, orthodox theories, the relationship between the law and the gospel, justification theory, schedule and foreknowledge, has developed a theology that is not too exaggerating to say that we still carry it. I am. But writing such a thing would make him angry. He is a scholar who valued human humility more than any other person.
In this book, which is the first volume of early Freud's masterpiece, while familiar stories such as 'Dream of Irma's injection' and 'Edipus Complex' are used, the dream fulfills the desire, and the memory is compressed and moved during the dream creation process. It is told that it will be done.
Although it would be sufficient to have dozens of pages in the introductory book by extracting only these theoretical explanations, the reason why there are 400 pages in the library is that it precedes Freud himself, his family, and patients. There are numerous references to research and literature. It can be said that Freudian psychoanalysis is a process of understanding the unconscious mechanism of the analyzed subject, but in fact, the cases of Freud himself, his family, and patients described in this book are various until today. Rereading” continues. Such comprehension is highly compatible with literary/textuality, which may be one of the reasons Freud's theory continues to have widespread influence on literary criticism and philosophy. In that sense, not only 'Edipse King' but also Shakespeare, Goethe, Dode, Zora, etc., and the logic of this book, in which the logic is constructed by citing and criticizing the preceding research, such literatureism and text It was interesting that Gender was built in from the beginning.
At the end of the first part of this book, we will explain the compression theory by separately considering dream thought (latent content) and dream content (explicit content), and explain the strange coined words that often appear in dreams. (Actually, I've lived for 40 years and never dreamed of coining words.)
'The dream compression process is most apparent when it comes to choosing words and names for the object that is about to be compressed. Dreams often treat words as things. Words experience synthetic effects similar to the representation of things.” (p. 382)
Around this citation, Freud's interest rushed into linguistic action in his dreams, but when I first came into contact with Freud through structuralist Lacan, I was close to Saussure linguistics, which separated the signifiant and signifie. I felt the sex and it was very interesting. (The story of that area expands on imagination/representation in general in the second volume.) It is undeniable that the first one, in which the citations and criticisms of the previous studies continue endlessly, was boring (laughs), but such readability is difficult. I think it will be really interesting if it exceeds. In the latter half of the first volume of this book, dreams of falling from high places, dreams of failing in exams, dreams of being naked alone, and other familiar 'al-al' dreams are all analyzed, even though they are familiar.
According to Wikipedia's explanation of 'idea', the contents are as follows.
Kabbalah considers the creation of the world as a ten-step process of outflow of holiness from the god Ein Soph, and interprets that the final form of holiness is this physical world. This process is represented by a symbolic diagram called the Sephirot tree of life, which is composed of 10 'spheres' and 22 'small diameters', and the attributes of God are reflected in that part. Therefore, although Kabbalah is a monotheist, it has a world view close to polytheism and pantheism.
Another interpretation regards this world as a book. Decoding this all-written book is the understanding of everything in this world. The book is said to be written in 22 Hebrew letters, each character symbolizing an element that is the principle of the universe. Therefore, deciphering the Hebrew alphabet is an important key.
In addition, the mysterious interpretation of the Old Testament description, which is seemingly inconsistent with Bible infallibility, is influenced and deciphered. As an example, there are two scenes of human creation in the creation of the universe at the beginning of Genesis. In the literature, this is considered to be a contradiction caused by the integration of different myths into one book, but in Kabbalah it is interpreted that human creation actually took place twice (or more).
As the title suggests, the Top 500 Reviewer's review, ' If you're having trouble, read from Chapter 13 ' is quite accurate.
Leviathan is probably a must-read and must-read for any social sciences person, but the author Hobbs's brushwork is unusually analytical, without humor or wit, a ridiculous reading material. You can say that.
Moreover, the content introduced in textbooks, etc. as Hobbes's political thought is concentrated in the second half of the first part to the first half of the second part, so do not read the second two books unless you are particularly interested. I personally think it's okay.
In the Iwanami Bunko edition, the 1st to 4th parts of the text correspond to the 1st to 4th volumes, respectively.
Up to Chapter 12 in Part 1, the content is like a reflection of the philosophy of the time, such as epistemology, semantics, and value theory. The so-called 'Hobbesian' political thought and social contract theory appeared in earnest in Chapter 13.
People are equal by nature, and because of their equality, hostility is born and 'the struggle of each person against each other' becomes a natural state. However, humans also have 'fear of death' and need wisdom to survive. Therefore, according to the rules for coexistence (natural law) found by 'reason', people willingly waive their rights and conclude social contracts.
Much of the rest of Chapter 14 and beyond is devoted to the details of 'natural law'. The reasoning around here is pretty sloppy and uncoordinated, but in any case, Hobbes puts it all together, after all, the core of natural law is: ``You don't want to do to yourself You must not do it.' It's a political idea that is really easy to understand (laughs)
Even in the detailed discussion of theology in Parts 3 and 4, Hobbes puts the article of faith into a very simple proposition, 'Jesus is Christ.' So, as I said at the beginning, it's not interesting, but it's a very easy-to-read book for a long time if the points are kept down.
Hobbes's point of thinking about 'natural law' is to think reasonably in order for each person to secure the right to 'self-preservation', which is the most basic natural right, that is, to establish 'peace'. The point is that the rules that you should only observe are called 'natural law.' It is not a direct rule of God, as in Locke.
(Continued to Part 2)
The summary section in the following review by the Top 1000 Reviewers is the most helpful.
The view of trying to capture science in a recursive way is common in the world.
But this view is false.
The principle of induction may certainly work as a problem of human psychology, but it has nothing to do with the principle of science in question.
No matter how many single statements (individual cases) are collected, a universal statement cannot be derived from them.
However, universal assertions can be refuted by single assertions (existence assertions).
For example, the universal statement 'All crows are black' is refuted by the existence statement 'One crow is white.'
This is a deduction method and a reliable method.
Focusing on this asymmetry between universal assertions and existential assertions, science based on deduction can be realized.
That is the science of the falsification test.
A theory (universal assertion) is validated by a test, and if the test survives, it survives for now.
If you are disproved, think and test another hypothesis (theory).
This is what science should be.
Therefore, irrefutable theory cannot be called science.
Such theory is a matter of metaphysics.
In this way, the boundary between science and non-science is drawn.
The more rigorous a theory is, the more room there is for falsification, and the better the theory is, the better the theory.
On the other hand, it is not a good theory to broaden the theory and narrow the room for rebuttal evidence.
Moreover, it is a certain figure as a scientist who makes an excuse by making an excuse when disproved.
Scientists should be allowed to study freely, always be aware that theory is a hypothesis, and repeat falsification.
I agree that falsification can be at least one of the axes of science.
This is because the theory that cannot be rebutted cannot be entered into the system of science because it forms a system by itself.
I agree with Popper's argument against opposition to induction, but I think inductive inference is valid.
Certainly, if we accept induction as a principle, we can find as many examples as are convenient for a certain theory, and we cannot call it science at all.
However, if it is a speculation rather than a principle, it seems to be indispensable to Popper's science of falsification.
First of all, Popper says that science should handle only experiments that can be repeated (upper p55), but the idea that this can be repeated means that inductive speculation holds.
Second, in order to discard the falsified theory and derive the prediction from the test-resistant theory, one must assume the identity of the past test and the current prediction, which is an inductive guess. ..
Also, in order to eliminate the hypothetical hypothesis presented in the Glue paradox, such as 'until time t, and after time t,' it is necessary to assume homogeneity. is there.
So, Popper's theory of falsification and inductive speculation are considered consistent.
Written by Marcus Aurelius, one of the five wise emperors of the Roman Empire, known as 'The Emperor of the Philosophers,' he explained, 'This book was written under quiet meditation, but Since ancient times, it has been the most read and encouraged myriad people.” The following review explains it in an easy-to-understand manner.
I tried to extract some of the things I liked. Thinking of buying
I would be pleased if it would be helpful for those who would
Chapter 4 3 'People seek places to sit in the countryside, coasts and mountains. You too
There is a habit of earnestly admiring the place. But this is all very popular
It's a way of thinking. Because you can pull in yourself whenever you want
You can stay in it. In fact, no matter where you are,
You can't find a peaceful, quiet and secluded hideout in your soul. This
In the case of
This is all the more so if you have something that comes with you.
Chapter 4 19 “People who beat their hearts about fame after death think of
There isn't. That is, each human being remembering him and himself
You die, then your successor dies, burns up and disappears
Memories about him were handed from one to another like a torch
That the entire memory of is erased. ~Anyway~ You are the gift of nature
Obsessed with time, obsessed with time, obsessed with what others might say in the future
I am doing it. ]
Chapter 8 47'If you suffer for some external reason, don't bother you.
It's not your thing, it's your judgment about it. ~Okay~ if you
If you're suffering from not doing what you think is healthy, then
Why not take that action at all, instead of suffering. 'But it is difficult to overcome
An obstacle (harm) is lying. Then don't suffer, take that action
Because it's not your fault. 'But if you don't do that, you live
There is no worth. Then go away from your life. What you want
With a heart with good intentions, like a person who dies and loses
Even with respect to porcelain (harm), leave with a gentle feeling. ]
The following reviews indicate the meaning of this book.
I couldn't help feeling V.Pareto's unimaginable imagination and analytical intelligence while browsing through this book. The numbered discussions are bulleted discussions, rather than papers that are grouped together in a single subject, and, as many say, overlap. However, they are the duplications that Pareto emerged in the process of pondering the subject and are not in any way complaining. It may be that Pareto's interest attracted him as much as he was caught in that subject. It is good to read this book carefully, but the content is not enough to read it once you see it. Political science, no, the essence of humans appearing in politics and its dynamics are analyzed in detail, and the template of economy and society, the characteristics of national character, and the essence of civilization, among others, are written in series!
The introduction of the contents of Hosei University Press is simple and easy to understand.
Claiming, 'Since the world of the nations or the institutional world has been created by humans, its principles can be found in the various aspects of our human intelligence itself.' Vico that brought <Copernican turn> to.
◆61: Old Testament
The story of the creation of heaven and earth, the first murder of Cain and Abel Noah's Ark, the Tower of Babel, and the Ten Commandments are very famous.
◆62: Novum Organum-New Organization: Translated by Bacon/Juichi Katsura
The following review, 'A book that can be read more in the turbulent world ', explains the contents in a fairly easy-to-understand manner.
Bacon expressed his idea in the form of a stack of short sentences called aphorism. This is due to the criticism of the thinking form itself, which is to accumulate logic.
Bacon criticized deductive thinking, saying that humans could only know what they had directly observed or experienced.
He gives critical views not only on the logical development of humans, but also on the direct sense of humans themselves. This reveals a basic skepticism about the existence of human beings, which is unique to Britain, which also leads to Hume later.
From these thoughts, fanatic thoughts are never born.
Bacon criticizes not only the problem of thinking form, but also the trend of the times when Christianity had a strong influence that did not allow a critical view.
The problem of what he called out in this book, the so-called four Hydras, the prejudice of human nature, of individual nature, of social life, and of the false rules of argument, still applies today.
I think this book is a better book to read in order to re-examine the reality in front of us in modern Japan, where the way of thinking and things we have seen is reaching the limit. ..
The following review ' Battle of the Gods ' should be quite inspiring.
A famous epic about the Trojan War. It depicts the battle between the Greeks such as Achilles and Agamemnon, and the Asians such as Hector and Paris. So to speak, it is also a story that talks about fighting different civilizations. Also, in the battle of the human world, gods such as Zeus, Athena, and Aphrodite participated in the battle of humans
Has the side. The unique behaviors and activities of Agamemnon, Achilles, Hector, Diomenese, and the disputes and battles of the gods make the story even more interesting. The depiction of battles and emotions is unique, and it's very realistic.
You can see from the following review that the content is very interesting and readable.
An epic written by the ancient Greek poet Homer in the 9th century BC.
The story of Odysseus, a Greek hero who embarked on the Trojan War that lasted for about 10 years around 1200 BC. The original title is 'Poetry of Odysseus'. Odysseus, a hero who has won the long war in Troia, leaves for his hometown of Itake, but suffers from the wrath of Poseidon, a sea god, on his way home. He drifted to an unintended island, fought with the Kikon people, had to fight the first giant Cyclops, and became a captive of a witch.
On the other hand, in his hometown of Itake, Aihime Penelopeia is waiting for her husband's return. Although his son Telemachus has grown into a respectable youth, his family is in a state of being occupied by those who are married to the widowed (probable) Penelopeia, and their food and drink have made the property rich. Being prodigious.
Odysseius, a hero who returned to Japan after 20 years (10 years of war + 10 years of exile) after overcoming hardship, joins forces with his son Telemachus to defeat these unreachable suitors...
To what extent can interference with individual freedom be forgiven? Why must dissents be respected? Why is it desirable to be a 'strange person'? The white eyebrows of the British empirical theory, which fundamentally considered individual freedom in civil society and explained its importance. The most radical book of today's must read.
In this book, Luther sheds light on the Bible to the Seven Sacraments of the Medieval Catholic Church.
Regarding the sacrament, for example, he argues that ordinary believers can also participate in the sacrament wine, affirming that the blood and flesh of Jesus Christ are truly present, while the idea of holy change is Dismissed. He also denied the teaching that the sacrament was a sacrifice dedicated to God.
Regarding baptism, Luther states that justification occurs only when it is associated with the faith of the person being baptized (“faith justification”). However, there is also the opinion that it would save even those who could later fall.
Moreover, the essence of the confession is said to be the words of promise (forgiveness) upon being heard with faith. Only the three sacraments, baptisms, and confessions associated with sacred ordinances and sacred promises of forgiveness can be treated as esoteric. Moreover, strictly speaking, it is only the sacrament and baptism with 'the material sign that God has determined'. In other words, bread and wine in the sacrament, and water in baptism. Luther does not recognize the other four secrets ('marriage', 'ordination', 'confirmation', and 'final oil') in this book.
In this paper, Luther considers the following three to be 'captive': First, the wines of the Lord's Supper are taken from the congregation; second, the teaching of the Holy Change; and third, the Roman Catholic Church does not have Mass with the spiritual fellowship with Jesus, Rather, it is a memorial service.
The following review touches on the contents, provides easy-to-understand explanations, and tells us a little about this famous book.
A new version of a famous book that has changed history. Compared to the conventional translation, where one sentence is long and difficult to understand directly, the translator's ability to simply present the original sentence based on the knowledge of biological science makes it clear to the reader. The first volume is from Chapter 14 to Chapter 7, 'Instinct'.
At the beginning, as he said, 'I have no idea about the laws governing heredity,' Darwin, who did not know the existence and structure of genes, and even 'Mendel's Law' of the same age, The process and greatness that led to the conclusion only through insight are conveyed. Moreover, it is amazing that they were aware of certain traits transmitted from parents to their offspring, the presence of natural mutations, special functions of reproductive organs, the importance of cumulative action, etc. under the above-mentioned conditions. It is clear that the 'survival struggle' in a broad sense is also considered based on abundant cases. It can be said that the structure that introduces the concept of 'natural selection' that is the core of this book in Chapter 4 by extrapolating these is also skillful. It is also worth noting that the core of the advantage of bisexual organisms (= genetic mechanism) is intuitively approached. In addition, the generation/penetration rate of mutations (new species) in the population, the formation process of complicated organs with extremely high perfection such as eyes, and whether the target of selection is an individual or a species (Darwin is an individual level theory) Today You can see that he was also considering the physical problems.
On the other hand, around the beginning of Chapter 1 with 'mutation under captive cultivation,' one can feel Darwin's caution and consideration. I think that the reason why we started with the talk of breeding of flora and fauna was not only easy to understand, but also intended to soften the shock of the reader considering the impact of his theory. In particular, since God's creation theory is a theory that directly confronts each other, repulsion and repression from the religious world is inevitable, and I think it was difficult to deal with this. I once again felt that it was a monumental work that influenced not only biological science but also the ideological and religious circles, the worldview, and social science.
《Admirable reader, in this newly published and published book, you will find stellar and planetary movements that have been refined by ancient and modern observations and prepared by novel and astonishing hypotheses. In addition, a very convenient astronomical table is available, which makes it possible to calculate movements at any time quite easily. So buy it, read it, and have fun. 》(Introduction to Copernicus)
On May 24, 1543, his newly-printed book was delivered to Polish counselor Ekolaus Copernicus on the deathbed. This book, entitled 'Theory of celestial gyration,' establishes a theory of cosmology = the theory of the sun (centric theory), which is in direct opposition to the Aristotle-Ptolemaic theory of the earth's theory of the earth (the heliocentric theory), which prevailed throughout the ancient and medieval times. It was the trigger that triggered the historical event of the <Scientific Revolution>, and it was the book of the revolution that ushered in the dawn of modern times.
A Top 10 Reviewer and Hall of Fame Review by a reviewer, ' One of the Historical Works ' accurately represents the content.
'The whole war is predicated on human weaknesses and we will look at them.' 'Only those who have the right policies can surprise.' It is true that there are many expressions that are difficult and have connotations, such as the speech by former Fed Chairman Glyn Span. It's not a book that anyone can read. However, the explanation is coldly logical, and is therefore only round and round. Therefore, if you get used to it, you will find it even easier to understand.
However, although it is a masterpiece that has been loved and read by military personnel around the world for a long time, it is frankly stated that it is old, from the common sense of the times when weapons of mass destruction and high-tech weapons can take advantage of it.
On the other hand, the indication that 'the boldness can be easily exerted if a rational purpose is added' is not limited to the war, but may be useful for many business people. In fact, 'the knowledge necessary for senior soldiers can only be acquired by the consideration of special talents, that is, by research and consideration'. 'Critique is the application of theoretical truth to actual cases.' Or, the definition, position and significance of strategy and tactics are not limited to military.
It's not a simple book, but it's a work that sometimes makes you want to correct your posture while reading.
The description of ' About this book' in ' Sextos Empericos 'Outline of Philonist Philosophy'-KING King's Reading History-Yahoo! Blog ' shows the character of this book well.
This book is an extremely rare material that is an outline of one of the few Pylonists written by the Pylonist himself, Sextos Empeiricus. In addition, since this book has a structure that refutes other philosophical groups, it is possible to know the outline of other philosophical groups at that time, and it is a valuable document in a double sense.
This book was translated into Latin in Europe in the 16th century, and was published and became an exceptional bestseller at that time (let alone, letterpress is one of the three great inventions of the Renaissance). It can be clearly seen that this book had a great influence on modern philosophy after the 17th century centered on epistemology.
Delphi's highest priest, Plutarch, was the “last Greek” who enjoyed the peace of Rome while remembering the glory of his homeland. This book is the definitive edition of a classical history book that was widely loved by posterity and was re-edited in an easy-to-read manner, depicting the heroes of Greece and Rome.
The following review explains the contents fairly well and you can see how famous it is.
The overly famous phrase 'Human is a reed to think about' is to be moved by knowing before and after it.
Amplify endlessly. Let's listen to Pascal's words for a while.
He said, 'Human is only one reed, [the reed] is the weakest in nature, but
It is a reed to think. ...... Even if the universe tries to crush humans, humans are still more likely to kill themselves
Will continue to be noble. Because human beings die for themselves, and the universe
I know that I can beat humans. The universe knows nothing.'
That's not all there is to read. That debate on 'Pascal's Bet' is also in this text
Will be deployed. The insight that natural nature is nothing but artificial is wonderful. Implicitly
If you turn the page, you will find that there are too sharp and too sharp aphorisms everywhere.
Think of death, Memento mori.
The word that madness and genius are single paper is appropriate for Pascal. While pouring the pain of fresh blood,
A life that foolishly ran through himself with knowledge and praises the universe for superiority,
With that knowledge.
A moving masterpiece in which the pain, loneliness, and ephemeral hopes are condensed.
The content is briefly shown in the following review ' Awareness of the path of despair '.
The first volume contains an introduction, an introduction, A-consciousness, B-self consciousness, and C-reason.
As the consciousness goes through the 'path of despair,' that is, facing denial,
The details of how it develops into true knowledge are described in detail.
'About what can be said can be clarified, and about what cannot be discussed, one has to be silent.'-This is the only philosophical book published before by Wittgenstein (1889-1951). is there. Its extremely condensed style and original content, consisting of systematically numbered “propositions,” is full of unfathomable charm and “danger”.
A masterpiece of 17th century Puritan literature. A masterpiece that is said to have been read well after the Bible. A complete translation of the author's 'The Road to Heaven', created by the pious faith and spirituality of author John Bunyan (1628-1688). The figure of a person who travels in search of salvation and perpetuity while suffering from the burden of his own sins will have to resonate with the souls of modern people.
What kind of story it is written in ' Tenki history ' of Wikipedia.
A man named Christian, who lived in the 'City of Destruction', went through various difficult passages such as the 'City of Vanity' and the death battle with the destroyer Apollon, It takes the appearance of a record of the journey to reach the destination.
A review called 'American Philosophy' touches on the content as follows.
The author, William James (1842-1910), is one of America's leading philosophers. The title 'pragmatism' means 'pragmatism' in direct translation, but as the name implies, it seems to be a collection of useful things from past Western philosophy. As is well known, in order to organize the history of philosophy, it is fundamental to classify it into a dual theory, such as a consensus theory and an empirical theory, but the author believes that one of them is based on the 'principle' It is said that it is extreme to lean towards one of the dualisms, such as empirical theory, sensory theory, materialism, etc., by positing principles and idealism, and the other based on 'facts'. In other words, they are trying to get the best of both worlds. At the bottom of it, the intuition that the human character is hybrid and contradictory, and that 'principles' and 'facts' are entangled and cannot be separated in the field of pragmatic living, may be working. However, it is undeniable that there is a place where concreteness is disliked and there is a place to be concrete, in terms of 'dualism'. It may be true that it feels unsatisfactory in the direction of seeking an abstract depth of thought.
Even so, it's an American philosophy.
For details, see Wikipedia .
Mollier (Morrie), the goddess of fools, holds a big speech in front of the audience, with abundant quotations from Bible legends and Greek and Roman classics, along with a sequel to the stupidity of human society, and taunting the stupidity of human society. That is. Foolish Goddess thoroughly withdraws authoritative people such as royal aristocrats, priests, theologians, grammarists, philosophers with a nifty narrative, and the power of foolishness acts at the basis of human conduct, human beings He says that if he is stupid, he will be happy.
The fool goddess Moria Moria is a Greek word meaning 'fool' or 'madness' and was associated with the more-more Latin name Mors Morus. This book is dedicated to Thomas More.
In addition, for some reason, the item of ' praise for stupidity ' in Uncyclopedia is quite helpful in some sense.
◆77: New translation Monarchy: Nikkoro Machiavelli / Ren Ikeda
The review by the top 10 reviewers, ' Why not touch the wisdom that the Catholic Church has treated as a forbidden book ? ' is easy to understand.
'The vast majority of people in the world will live quite satisfied unless property and honor are taken away.' 'Generally, human beings are judged only by what they see, rather than by touch. 'Human beings are inclined to the nature they were born in and cannot leave.'
Although it was written about 500 years ago, it is a historic masterpiece that has been angry at the Catholic Church, has been treated as a temporary ban, and is finally being read neatly in the 19th century. No wonder. 'The destiny is a goddess, so if you want to conquer her, you need to beat it up and push it away.' 'The territorial desire is a very natural and natural desire,' he wrote with no worries.
Due to the changing times, there are some parts that cannot be easily applied to social description. However, if you look closely, it is once again realized that the essence of human beings has not changed with the times.
On the other hand, the Machiavelli monarchy is quite active. The unwarranted attitude strongly warned, matched oneself with the changing times, and encouraged preparations that 'all the big works were done only by the hands of people who seem to be stingy', and after all the war Get rid of it.
Although there are many unpleasant quotations, a certain kind of painful post-reading feeling remains because it points out the essence of human beings too clearly and does not look down on the stupidity of the world and people, but is positive. The point is that the intention to turn to energy is blurred. It is worth reading over time.
The explanations and translations are very careful, it's a paperback size, it doesn't take place, and it's appreciated that you can buy it for less than 1,000 yen.
Wikipedia's ' Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy ' outlines the contents.
The original text is written in Latin. There are three volumes, and the titles and points of each volume are as follows.
Volume 1 About the movement of objects
Law of motion of objects in vacuum
Volume 2 About the movement of objects
Law of motion of an object in a resistive medium.
Volume 3 About the World System
It deals with the mathematical mechanism of the real universe, and its position, whether it is an object on the earth, a planet around the sun or a comet, can be uniformly explained by the mathematical law of universal gravitation. It is shown that.
In principle, Euclid's 'Original Theory' is used as a mathematical tool throughout the whole volume. Furthermore, the format of development follows the 'original theory', and adopts a public theoretical format. It is a method that first shows an axiom and then uses that axiom to prove.
At that time, I tried to explain it by using only Euclidean geometry as much as possible, without using differentiation/integration, which had begun to be studied, so it is a very large work. It is speculated that this was due to competition with Prussia's Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz in terms of their contents (absolute time) and notation in terms of differentiation and integration. Newton and Leibnitz were often radically different in their views of time and space, and clashed violently (see also the article on space). However, it is not the case that there are some parts that use algebraic analysis.
' Kazunori Tomano Blog (Philosophy/Pedagogy name introduction/commentary): Jung's 'Psychological typology' ' explains the contents of 'Psychological typology' in a fairly easy-to-understand entry.
By the way, the 'psychological type' depicted in this book is not a so-called 'unconscious' level type, but a conscious level type.
Needless to say, Jung is also famous for proposing 'collective unconsciousness'.
At the unconscious level, people have the 'collective unconsciousness' that has been shared since ancient times. Jung claims so. Especially in the latter half of his life, Jung devotes himself to the exploration of such an unconscious world, but 'consciousness'-level research was also crucial to Jung for mutual understanding.
In this book, you can enjoy Jung's excellent thinking, which moves back and forth between the conscious and unconscious world in a well-balanced manner.
1. Communist Party
2. Classes and class struggles
3. Socialism and Communism
4. Correctly handle conflicts within the people
5. War and peace
6. Imperialism and all reactionaries are papier-mache tigers
7. Be bold, be brave, and be victorious
8. People's War
9. People's Army
10. Party Committee Guidance
11. Mass routes
12. Political work
13. General relations
14. Military-civil relations
15. The Three Great Democrats
16. Education and training
17. Serving the people
18. Patriotism and Internationalism
19. Revolutionary heroism
20. Employment Country
21. Self-rehabilitation, struggle
22. Thought method and construction method
24. Correct wrong thoughts
27. Criticism and self-criticism
28. Communist Party members
◆81: Qur'an (Quran)
It is an Islamic scripture that covers 114 chapters in total, and the content of the first chapter, 'The Qur'an, ' is very famous.
The original Arabic language and its translation are as follows.
1:1 بِسْمِ اللّهِ الرَّحْمـَنِ الرَّحِيم
Bismillā hi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīm
The best mercy in the name of God.
1:2 الْ حَ مْدُ للّهِ رَ بِّ الْ عَ الَمِين
Al ḥam du lillā hi rabbi l-'ālamīn
All thanks go to Allah, the God of the world.
1:3 الرَّحمـنِ الرَّحِيم
Ar raḥmāni r-raḥīm
Allah has the highest mercy,
1:4 مَـالِكِ يَوْ مِ الدِّين
Māliki yawmi d-dīn
Ruler of the Last Judgment Day.
1:5 إِيَّاك نَعْ بُدُ وإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِين
Iyyāka na'budu wa iyyāka nasta'īn
We worship you only and seek help only from you.
1:6 اهدِنَــــا الصِّرَاطَ المُستَقِيمَ
Ihdinā ṣ-ṣirāṭ al-mustaqīm
Take us all on the right path.
Ṣirāṭ al-la ḏī na an'amta'alayhim ġayril ma ġḍū bi'alayhim walāḍ ḍāllīn
To the way of those who have been blessed, not those who have given you anger or who have lost your way.
The following outline, written in ' Reflection of the French Revolution ' on Wikipedia, gives a brief overview.
The latter half predicts how the revolution will follow, and the last part states, 'Before seeing the final settling, France must pass through a reincarnation that should be purified by fire and blood.' There is.
The following reviews explain and explain not only the contents but also related matters and prerequisites.
The paper, which has only 24 pages, changed the world unknowingly. It broke human's fixed view of spacetime. It has been since the beginning of human history, and the physical view of the world is completely different before and after Einstein. In 1905, a conservative paper entitled 'Electrodynamics of Moving Objects' was published in 'Analen der Physics' by a 26-year-old man. Since Galilei, no, including before Galilei, humans have been staring at the sky with a very common sense. Ptolemy would have read the stars as human souls that were far away, and thought that the sky was full of spirits. However, natural philosopher Aristarchus applied the theorem of geometry to derive the size of the Earth in a surprisingly accurate way at the ancient times. In ancient times, only Aristarchus believed that a shining star, like our Sun, was a burning star for something. At least in ancient Greece, only this one calm man stares at the sky and shows a common understanding of the present. However, he didn't have advanced mathematics tools or precise measurement technology. The medieval Christian view of the world ran out of the heritage of Greek natural philosophy, and even in the early modern times the stars and the universe were regarded as symbols that govern the fate of nations and humans. In fact, Johannes Kepler was an astrologer and Isaac Newton was a more mystic. It seems that Galilei was a relatively common sense and experimenter.
For a long time, this world was thought to be a common sense world to which our everyday senses are adapted. The speed can be added up and down. This is a very normal feeling of human beings. Because the natural environment and the range in which we live proves this by itself. Are fish living in water really water conscious? .. At best, the relative speed of moving objects does not become a problem in our lives in the era when horses and SL are the only things that are fast. The Danish astronomer Roemer made a measurement of the speed of light at which Galilei failed, and was using the eclipse of Jupiter's satellite to measure the speed of light, which was considered infinite at the time. The numbers he derives are surprisingly good choices as approximations. Like Aristarchus, Römer seems to have been a very smart man. After a long time, the preparations for the special relativity came to an end. And young Einstein appears. Special relativity starts from two principles.
(1) assumes that the relativity of movement, that is, if we are moving in a certain direction at 300 km/h in the universe, the person watching it is moving away from us at 300 km/h. Although it is not a mistake to say, this principle would be convincing in words, but at the time of its presentation, few people could understand its physical meaning accurately.
(2) is to set the speed of light to the limit of speed. At that time, I was confused because I didn't know what the medium for transmitting light was. Then, a virtual entity called ether was conceived as a virtual medium for transmitting light. Michelson conducted a subtle experiment in an attempt to detect this virtual entity. The earth is rotating at a speed of 1660 kilometers per hour. I thought that at this speed and the speed perpendicular to the axis of rotation, there would be a difference in the speed of light under the substance called ether. If even a slight difference could be detected, special relativity would not have come out. However, the difference in speed was not detected no matter how many times it was done. There is no ether. Michelson had no choice but to declare: Special relativity is a consequence of these two assumptions.
It is 'time delay at the speed of light', 'mass increase', and 'combining substance and energy'.
Before Einstein, Dutch physicist Hendrick Lorenz had reached mathematically relativity by Lorentz transformation, and Poincaré and Fitzgerald of England were at the entrance of special relativity. It is said that if Einstein's paper was delayed, they might have created special relativity. Special relativity can be understood mathematically if quadratic equations can be manipulated. However, physically, an experimental background was essential to get there.
A review called 'The Paradoxical On Parade ' conveys the atmosphere well.
A common prejudice against classics is that 'the classics may have been groundbreaking claims at the time of their announcement, but today they have common sense and trivialities.' Read this book and you'll see just how wrong these assumptions are.
This book is an extreme parade from beginning to end. 'Only philosophers (scientists) have the power to see the truth, so the nation should be ruled by philosophers (scientists),' or 'Baby so that everyone can get along like a family. You should keep away from your relatives and not know who is whose child,' or 'The value of fiction should be evaluated solely in terms of its impact on society. Therefore, fiction that is harmful to youth should be thoroughly cracked down. Anyway, radical claims continue. If someone blogs the same claim now, it's all about burning. This book was written about 2,400 years ago, but its controversial nature remains the same at that time and even now. That's why it's a classic.
The main work of Hayek who continued to be criticized, slandered, and slandered without reading. Neoliberal classic. A problematic work that caused a great deal of controversy when the Keynesian policy was broken down into Fascism (totalitarianism) as well as Nazism, Stalinism, and socialism in England during World War II. It is said that the idea of defending freedom and the market has been passed down through the ages and has even influenced Thatcher, Reagan, and Koizumi structural reform.
The Top 100 Reviewers and Hall of Fame Reviewers' review below is easy to understand.
The author Simone de Beauvoir was the unmarried wife of JP Sartre. As a high school boy at a boy's school, I read this book when I was in high school, and I was shocked. In the theory of femininity, which begins with the descent of 'A person is not born into a woman, it becomes a woman,' he wonders if a woman is also changing her original self to become the image of a woman a man has. Was the biggest surprise I saw from a man.
Then, does the original woman feel much the same as a man?
He is now a parent of boys and girls while holding an unknown feeling. When you become a parent and look at your daughter, you can feel that, as Beauvoir says, you are trying to make yourself a woman.
Rather, it may be a book that men should read.
What is progress in science? How will the change of world view occur?
This book uses the concept of 'paradigm' as a weapon, and sharply analyzes the unexplored theme 'scientific revolution',
It gives a new perspective to the history of science from Copernicus to Bohr.
Paradigm is a work that is widely accepted by people,
It gives scientists an example of how to ask and answer about nature for a certain period of time.
Break down this paradigm as a framework of thought,
Introducing a different view of nature is nothing less than a revolution,
The author says.
It is a book of issues that have received a great deal of attention as a sociology of science and psychology/behaviorology of a group of scientists.
What kind of book is easy to understand from the Wikipedia commentary 'The Complete Theology '.
The characteristics of 'Theology' are systematically arranged by organically classifying the contents of the 'Propositions' (Sententier) and 'Commentary' (Commentarium) used in theology at the time. It is in the process of being redone. In other words, the words of the Bible and the words of the Father and theologian have been reprinted in an easy-to-understand manner. In addition, the results of discussions and interpretations that have been actively held at schools and universities attached to the Bishop's Cathedral in the Middle Ages are included.
The following review cites the content and makes it easy to understand what kind of book it is.
This book is a collection of interviews with Chomsky.
As a political activist, Chomsky has hardly been touched directly, and his main focus is on generative grammar.
The following are the things that impressed me in Chomsky's words.
'Because I'm too busy with a variety of activities..., I have little interaction with any other (academic) field' (p. 56)
'We are just going the wrong way, and sooner or later that may come to the fore' (p. 100).
“(In the field of linguistic history) my own research has been so distorted that it's really unbelievable” (p. 115)
'The kind of research I do has always been of interest only to a handful of people in this field' (p. 125).
“In the United States… even if it could be a constructive and creative research,… it has been pruned in this area” (p. 131)
'I don't study any other language than English because I'm not familiar with any of them.' (p. 204)
'Grammar must actually exist. That is, there must be something in the brain that corresponds to grammar.' (p. 254)
'Brain science... At present, the content of general theory is scarce... No one knows whether or not brain science sees the right thing.' (p. 367)
Even such a well-known scholar suffers from misunderstanding of his theory and states that he is a minority.
There were many unexpected claims, such as saying that it was difficult to do creative research in the United States.
Even if I don't quite understand the fate of generative grammar, frankly, I'm sure I felt a sense of familiarity with Chomsky.
As for what it says, Wikipedia's Lao Zhu Tokutsu is more detailed.
Daido Ko Yuniyoshi (Ninyoshi appears only when the great 'road' is abolished.)
Wisdom out (when there is wisdom, there is a great deception)
Six parent dissatisfaction Yutakaji (only when the father, mother, uncle, uncle, aunt, and aunt are unfamiliar with each other, filial piety and mercy are welcomed.)
Kuniya Naruto Yusadaomi (Only when the nation is confused (there is a lot of servants who are in light of the Emperor's opinion), the Sadaomi who gives up directly to the emperor will be recognized.) (Moroku Sutra 18)
'Generals who are good at war are not sensitive to emotions. Generals who are good at martial arts and who can always ensure the best victory do not war themselves. Those who are skilled in using people humbly humble everything This is called 'undisputed virtue' in which nothing is disputed, it is a trick to use the power of people, a policy that considers the celestial spirit, and is the political philosophy of the saint-kunzi與 Good servant Sonoshita So-called Shigenori Noritou So-called servant Kosoten Furuno Kyoya) (Chapter 70)
“Knowing what you don't know is progress, and its accumulation is a splendid thing. On the other hand, it is a vanity that you know you do not know anything, but it is derived from the pathology of the mind ( Sho-no-Ichi-Ichi Disease () (Chapter 73)
Persian Guru Zaratostra shouted, 'God died at last' and returned to the human beings again, denying religious enlightenment and affirming the praiseees on the ground in front of the crowd, 'Human conquest Born and live to do so.' This book, which expresses the inspiration of 'return to eternity' suddenly in August 1881 into the internal process of Zaratostra's growing into a superhuman, was the last stage of Nietzsche and the beginning of Existentialism.
The second book in the British empirical trio, the main work by George Berkley.
By using the thesis of 'presence is to be perceived (Esse Perkipi)', we thoroughly attack <materials> that exist independently of us, <objects themselves> on the other side of perception. To go.
Is it possible that the desk in front of us exists independently of our perception?
'Even if no one is looking at this room and no one is in this room, this desk will exist.'
Perhaps those who say this imagine (perceive!) the scene of a desk in an empty room.
Whatever you imagine, whatever your situation is, what is it other than 'I perceive' or 'show me'? There is no world beyond the door! ?
Berkeley's discussion is straightforward, sincere, and very readable. I feel that the translated text is a little old, but I am grateful for the extra politeness of the notes that make up for it.
The content of this philosophy book is explained in detail in Wikipedia ' Human Nature '.
Hume points out that human perception is divided into impressions and ideas, and impressions include powerful stimuli such as emotions, sensations, and emotions, and ideas are merely images that are not accompanied by emotional movements. Ideas and impressions are inextricably linked, simple ideas are derived from simple impressions, and impressions are the basis for generating ideas. Impressions can be divided into sensory impressions and remorse impressions. The former appears in human psychology due to the cause of the road, while the latter is manifested by ideas. Therefore, Hume argues that the idea is that the impression first stimulates the senses to cause human beings to perceive pleasure and distress, and keeps it in mind even after the impression disappears. This allows the idea to make the impression reproducible, to remember known events and to imagine unknown events. Imagination brings about a complex work of the mind, and it works according to the rules of three notions of similarity, proximity, and causality. This law is the law of ideas, and as a complex idea according to this law, human beings are given three ideas of relation, aspect, and substance.
According to ' Thermal Theory | Masterpieces of Natural Science (Classic/Enlightenment) ', the contents are as follows.
'Thermal theory' is a textbook about the heat that has been elucidated.
It is supposed to be written.
An outline and a part of the translation are introduced.
According to the summary introduced
'Thermometer principle' 'Measurement of heat quantity' 'Mechanical principle' 'Basics of thermodynamics'
'Experimental facts about heat' 'Interpretation of experimental facts'
It is 'applied'.
K can only be described as an ordinary office worker. He has no idea why he was involved in the trial or what the trial was. And gradually he is caught in a difficult situation. An uneasy anxiety that covers the whole.
More detailed contents are touched on by the following reviews .
Joseph K. is finally killed. But I felt that the chapter was not connected. If so, it can be considered that Kafka's intention is expressed more in the pages before the chapter, even from the number of pages written. Try not to get too trapped in the ending, following the theory that every line is equally important.
K once resorted to a lawyer on the advice of his uncle. However, he is disgusted by the lawyer who speaks only and decides to refuse. Then he went to the lawyer and offered that he no longer needed defense. There was a humble merchant block. And K tries to fight the lawsuit alone. I thought this was the climax.
(This reading is abstract and separate from the original because it is a dreamlike story, foreseen a dark future, or absurd.)
After that, the story of the famous 'Rule of the Commandment' comes out. There is a scary gatekeeper who threatens a man halfway and keeps him out. I accepted that it was a story that made K look at his attitude. It might be a landscape in a man's heart. After all, the man didn't dare enter. Perhaps he was thinking about the way he would come and what he would do while having a dialogue with the gatekeeper.
The whole novel feels like a story in which individuals (ordinary people) pursue something on their own. K is acting without hesitation, considering the surroundings. No one will ever achieve 100 percent. I speculate that K was finally killed because Kafka had an experience (mentally) similar to reality and wrote down that part smoothly (maybe my memory mistake, but this The ending is said to have been written first along with the beginning).
Upanishad is a collective term for a group of theological and religious philosophy books written in Sanskrit. These books, which form the basis of Indian thought, were established based on the Vedic mythology and the tradition of ceremonies, but they set a line apart from Brahman's ceremonial universalism up to that point, and the background of the success of the king at that time On the other hand, he pursued the pursuit of truth and developed a philosophy that preached the universe. This book contains excerpts of main stories from ancient Upanishads dating from the 4th to 8th century BC. There, there is a philosophical idea of 'Baraga Ikjo' that equates the dualism of Brahman and Atman and preaches the fundamental principle of absolute Fuji, and the religion of reincarnation, work, and commentary that became the foundation of Buddhism etc. Thoughts are highlighted.
Wolstoncraft argues that the kind of affection men have ever had towards women is low, because men have hindered the intellectual development of women. Taking the case of Therese, which Rousseau loved, he points out that the weakness of women who make their lives dependent on men only creates short-term attachment on an ad hoc basis. That's why Wolstoncraft believes that intelligence is needed to improve such intellectually low-level romance that continues with these animal desires. She argues that it is important for men and women to help each other, and that if men impede women's intellectual development, women liberate women by degrading them. What is needed to liberate women is education, and Wolston Craft seeks an understanding of the content of conventional national education and reforms of institutions by enumerating the appropriate knowledge and virtue given to women. There is.
The following reviews give a good overview of the contents of this famous work.
Isn't this book an attempt to interpret the turbulent Europe of the early 18th century, focusing on the historical fact of Napoleon's approach to Moscow in 1812? It seems that Tolstoy's awareness of such issues is the reason why the same Christian European devoured the blood-washing war.
Glittering fragments of human observation are scattered throughout this book. In comparison, modern novels (understood that they are too generalized) often have stories based on a single fragment. The method of writing the story may be changing, and there may be a part that overlaps with the grammar of the movie where you have to write something easy to understand in two hours. It made me think that there is a big difference between a work that is commonly called a masterpiece and a modern novel.
It's a wonderful story as a historical novel, but more than that, it means that the human psychology has reached complex human psychology, such as changes in human priority during normal times and wartime, that is, extreme conditions, and the duality of good and evil of each character. So this novel has gained universality. Depending on the situation, the strengths and weaknesses of each person, who can be good or bad, strong and weak, will be beautifully depicted. And Tolstoy pays attention to the passion (passion) that exists in people without any reason, and evaluates the overwhelming power above all.
Throughout the story, Tolstoy criticizes Napoleon's personal passion for historian's view of the flow of history, drawing the speed at which the war that began begins with its own vitality and turns into its desired direction. It is unique to Tolstoy, a rare novelist who can look at the two contradictory forces of 'inevitability' and 'freedom' and overlook the history and human activities that are established on the balance. It's as long as 4 books, but it's not difficult to read.
It is a famous book about ' Invisible Hand ', and it has the following contents.
Published in 1776 by Smith, the father of economics, this book is an immortal masterpiece called the classic among the classics as the first systematic narrative of economics across theory, policy and history. This book, which insists on the so-called 'invisible hand' planned harmony free laissez-faire policy, is, in its substance, a scientific analysis of modern civil society, and all of the later theories originate here. New translation. (4 books in total)
A review titled ' I peeked into the abyss of the world that I shouldn't look in ' is a good review in every sense.
It's been a long time since I read this philosophy book, but I experienced the thrill and excitement I will never forget.
Of the four volumes, the first volume is based on the idea that the world is my representation, and the outside world can be known by senses and ideas. It's not that it's original to the extent that it's a stone's throw.
Demonstrate the real power from the second volume.
From here, the identity of one of the keywords, 'will', is exposed under the sun.
...When I read this volume (and Volume 4), I fell into the illusion that I was informed of the secrets of this world that should never be seen or heard during my lifetime, and I was frustrated with goose bumps. Oops.
Overview (including spoilers below)
・・・ This 'will' is the driving force that drives and changes all natural phenomena, from stone boulders to flora and fauna to humans. As far as humans are concerned, not only breathing and beating, but also appetite, growth, sexual impulse, desire for money, desire for money, unwelcome old age and death... If there. Moreover, this blind willingness is ardent for the survival of the species, but is indifferent to the survival and dignity of the individual, forcing the innumerable individual to live and die and promote the metabolism of the species. The key to that is the sexual drive, which is why, in fact, it is the strongest (but not the whole life) will to live and the desire in life.
On the other hand, human beings with a higher degree of consciousness than other creatures, the more they are tossed about by this uncontrollable will, the higher the degree of disillusionment such as heartbreak, job loss, and bankruptcy will increase, and distress will increase. There is no affliction with stone boulders or plants, these are just faithful and pure servants of the will)...
In that case, in principle, a group of fish swimming in the ocean as a lump, or a group of people heading to the company while making each other's compulsive footsteps in the concourse at the station every morning. After all, I myself, one of them, was nothing more than a stressful puppet... I never thought seriously why I was working every morning. There is a driving force behind it that encourages even inertial actions...