A list of 100 books and documents that influenced the world looks like this

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It is extremely rare for a book to keep reading for decades or hundreds of years, but there are also books still being read. I can not say "Recommended for light reading", but books chosen from the viewpoint that the Bible and Shakespeare to the unfamiliar things such as "a story to Belizebab's grandchild", "had a great influence on human history" It is Martin Seymour Smith 's summary of the & documentThe 100 Most Influential Books Ever Written (100 books that changed the world)is.Book reviews abroadAs this list itself is well done as an intro and entrance to humanities, there are many things that are supposed to hit the original work, so if you get these 100 volumes and you read it you will feel a sense of accomplishment Not only will you get it but it will bring more different value to yourself.

The 100 Most Influential Books Ever Written by Martin Seymour - Smith - The Greatest Books

◆ 01:1984 [New Version]: George Orwell / Takahashi Waku Translated

dominates. Winston Smith is a party member working at a ministry of record ministry in the Ministry of Truth, alteration of history was work. However, he was dissatisfied with the system which forced the perfect compliance more than before. One time, when I met Giulia, a female beautiful woman, I will be attracted by anti-government underground activities rumored that a legendary traitor has organized ... ....

◆ 02:Aeneux: Vergilian / Sugimoto Masatoshi translation

"Aeneus" which Vogilius (70 - 19 before) worked on in the last decade of the later years as Roman prime poet, was the best Latin epic to compare with Greek 's "Ilius" and "Odyssey" He gained a reputation. It was said that the main character Aeneeus had the appearance of Augustus, the power owner of the time, and this work which ended incompletely due to the death of the author was published under the strong intention of Augustus.
However, as soon as the publication is done, "Ae Nice", which became the best selling beyond the Renaissance period of the far future generations, can not explain simply by being strongly recommended by a powerful person as long as the facts that have long been loved until today. Rather, it is only because this work has abundantly the attractiveness as "reading" that accurately captures human problems standing at the turning point of history and always acquires new readers. For example, while Aenea Earth experienced a tragic encounter with Cartergo's Queen Dido on his way to Toloya to Italy, the poet surfaced the main character with such a sensuous woman, not a witch or a monster, At the moment we met, it can be said that the horizon of a new literature focused on the heart of one individual was opened. The work keeps the breadth of the epic of saying "Roman founding country", draws the figure of people suffering under the heavy pressure imposed by society and the nuisance caused by the human group such as war, and widely spreads the poet's territory It was.
In Western Europe where "Ae Nice" was read for a long time, it was one of the important sources of spiritual culture, which complements the "Bible" while making it relative. The world of Roman emotions overflowing there, the Roman beauty reflecting that word, and the world of stories that revive every time you read will continue to fascinate readers.
However, in Japan, the influence of the theory that was carried out at one time that "Aenee" is "imitation of Homeric", the unique and unrivaled taste of the work itself, compared with the name recognition of the title, now There is no current situation that too little is known. This translation solved this "misunderstanding" and attempted to translate so that modern people could be proficient from the heart to make "Aeneis" our classic. (Footstone · Masatoshi)

◆ 03:A figurative interpretation of the creation of the earth (Allegorical Expositions of the Holy Laws):Firone of Alexandria

Philon of Alexandria ((Latin: Philon Alexandrinus, Hebrew: יוסף בןפילון האלכסנדרוני, 20/30 BC? - 40/45 years after AD?) Was a Jewish philosopher active in Alexandria during the Roman Empire Julius-Clausius morning period. For the first time we applied knowledge of the rich Greek philosophy to the interpretation of Judaism thought.The accomplishments of Philon which used the Greek philosophy was not accepted by Jews but rather accepted by early Christians and became one of the roots of Christian philosophy It was.

As a primer, "Introduction to Aleksandria's FilonThere is something like that.

◆ 04:Thesis: Confucius / translated by Kaneda

belowReviewIt is very helpful.

It was thanks to this book that I could read through the thesis. Since I was a student, I took it many times, "What is this?", I was completely uninterested. I could think only about something old books. Other students of the Department of Philosophy probably had been swallowed in such an atmosphere, with only beings who are willing to appreciate the philosophy of France and Germany, such as existentialism and structuralism.

However, as I grew older, I could taste the fact that Western philosophy can not be the power to live. In such a case, reading Kim Ji-hee's "Thesis of modern people", ally to "thesis" changed, not thinking that it was a sermon, but a book written by a revolutionary at that time, it is quite interesting to read It was noticed.

When I became more able to read it more freely, I could find a sentence that gained empathy more and more and I could not let go. As Mr. Shizukawa Shi said, the view that it is a book of a loser is also comfortable from his own appearance.

I can not taste it because I was middle-aged, or because I felt the frustration of my life so I can read it, I do not really know about myself, but a lot of words to reach the deepest parts of my heart I knew that it was being done. I also appreciate that as well, this is because Mr. Kanaya made a statement on "translation theory" as a translation style.

◆ 05:Human understanding theory : John Rock / Translated by Yuichiro Kato

A book translated as "human intelligence theory", as contentWikipediaAccording to the following, it is as follows.

The central theme of this book is human knowledge. It is an important question to clarify to what extent human knowledge can have certainty, and rock is studying this problem by introspective method. By doing this, Lock attempts to clarify what human understanding is suitable for dealing with objects and not suitable for any subject.

In other words, the book "human argument theory" is not to clarify everything, but to aim for knowing things related to human acts. Rock targets observation by identifying the limit of knowledge as a basic viewpoint. Then consider the origins where ideas occur, the nature and scope of knowledge that understanding obtains from ideas, and the root of faith and views in turn.

◆ 06:Population argument: Malthus / Saitou Etsuke

Content ofReviewThe following is very easy to understand as.

The title of this book is as follows from the second edition.
"An Essay on the Principle of Population, or a View of its past and present effects on human happiness: with an inquiry into our prospects respecting the future removal or mitigation of the evils which it occasions."
If you translate it
"A theory about the principle of the population or views on past and present impacts on human happiness:
A study of prospects for the future elimination and mitigation of vices that cause influence on human happiness "

On the principle of population
Malthus puts two basic assumptions that are self-evident.
· First of all food (living resources) is necessary for the survival of mankind.
· Secondly, there is a passion between the opposite sexes.

What is derived from these two premises is the following consideration.
The population will increase exponentially if it is not limited, but the living resources increase only arithmetically.
Because the increase in population is unequally larger than the ability of land to produce living resources,
Then poverty inevitably emerges there.
Continued population brings ongoing lack of living resources and faces serious poverty problems.
Because the population is large, the workers will be oversupplied and the living resources will be under supplied.
Because it is difficult to get married and support your family in this situation, the population growth will stagnate here.
With the cheap labor force proceeding with new projects, it becomes possible for the first time to gradually increase the supply of living resources,
The balance between the first population and living resources is restored.
In society the history according to the principle of such population is repeated.

But is not this repetition stalling someday?
Because the earth is limited.
It is because of the poor that the poor are poor. Would not it be said that?
Please tell me.

◆ 07:Chronicle From Tiberius to Emperor Nero: Takitousu / Kiyonosuke Kohara

What kind of content is belowReviewIt is easy to understand.

A historical drawing that depicts the history from the Emperor Tiberius, Empire 2 of the Roman Empire to the fifth Emperor Nero, by Takitus who is said to be the greatest historian of ancient Rome.

The handwriting of Takitus famed as a famous writer is overflowing with realism, as if a turbulent era is about to come closer.

Takitus mercilessly punishes its violence and non-morality against other four people, not to mention a tyrant synonym, and lament the seniors who followed them.

Even if you keep putting down the historical judgment for a while, the talking stuff that you can call Tacitus section does not get tired of reading.

It is regrettable that there are many missing parts. It is a shame that it is unclear how the last scene of Emperor Nero was drawn.

For those interested in Roman history it is a good book to say must read, but some preliminary knowledge is still necessary. For those who want to know the history of Rome deeper.

◆ 08:Originally translated Avestar: Translated by Ito Yoshihito

Through the Silk Road, widely communicated to Central Asia by the people Sogudo of trade, Takagaku Zoroastrianism. The scripture "Avestar" is regarded as the oldest religious scripture in the world and consists of "Yasuna (festival book)" "Wiedeu (demobilizer)" "Yasuto (anthem for the gods)" and others. This book is the only Japanese translation translated from the original, selected carefully, centered on rhyme poems in Yasuna, which is said to be the most important of them. Although Zoroastrianism is also believed in the capital of Chang, Chang'an, thought such as "good and evil dualism" and "monotheism" is said to have greatly influenced Christianity, Western thought, and Buddhism. Not only as a classic but also an essential book essential for comparative thought.

◆ 09:Talk to Beelzebub's grandson - objective and impartial selfless criticism of human life: G.I. Gurujiev / Asai Masashi Translated

Where do humans head for? The philosopher Beelzebab speaks, the cerebral creatures of the planet Earth = the history of the universe over humans.

Although it is meaningless if it is only the simple explanation of the above,ReviewYou can see one part of its contents as you read.

"The story to Belizebab's grandchild" is said to be difficult, but the summary is clearer than the general philosophy book, the logic is concise, you can read the slaslers without stress. The goodness of translation is greatly related to this.
Also, even if it is an important concept of the Gurdjieff idea of ​​Heptaparashinoku and Triamazicamno, it is not so difficult to understand if you read it as "Seeking miracles" by Uspenski.
Indeed, between "the story to the grandchild of Beelzebab" and "seeking a miracle", the premise of the former is a tri-cerebral organism / three center organism, the latter premise is three centers (body, astral body, mental body) · There are major differences such as four functions (thinking, emotion, exercise, instinct) · five centers (instinct, motion · sex, sense · consciousness). If "seeking a miracle" is functionalistic, "the story to Belizebab's grandchild" is more anatomical and biological.
But rather than trying to make such a difference, the true spirit of "the story to Belizebab's grandchild" is demonstrated only when the reader compares it with his own real life. After all, as Gurdjiev wrote in his own words, his message will echo directly.

For example, the following is told.

"Actually, Boya. When I stayed on the earth, there were opportunities to travel around here and to see the monkeys of various races, but then I decided to call them a habit that was to be called my second nature Observing well from it, it was clear that something was clear.
In other words, the whole inner function of the various families of modern monkeys on Earth, and so-called are found in the body of several quadruped creatures born in a normal form It is very similar to things, and their also has amazing commonality with these quadruped creatures.
On the other hand, however, the so-called "spiritual features" found in all the monkey's races are exactly in agreement with the of the cerebral creatures, up to the finest point. P. 185

It may be indignant if a woman of the world reads, but the similarity between a monkey and a woman can not be denied.
No matter how beautiful appearance or elegant gesture, women's are the same as monkeys, up to the finest point if one peels.
This is an essential understanding I got from my own experience and is a truth that can be confidently bargained.
Due to such for me, "the story to Belizebab's grandchild" is a practical book to understand the spiritual writing of life and human relations.

Although it is said in other reviews, the words of this book echoes in my heart.
Perhaps the sound will be different for each person who reads it.
But when I was suffering from my life, when things got stuck, I guess they feel like they got the power to live from Gurdjiev who is in pain to this book.

◆ 10:Existence and absence <1> Attempt of phenomenological existence theory: Jean-Paul Sartre / Matsunami Shinzaburo translation

A philosophical main work of Sartre, who elaborately analyzed the way of human consciousness (actual existence) and questioned the dialectic of existence and absence. Existential psychoanalysis for discovering the fundamental choice, advocating human absolute freedom, the impact on the world is immeasurable. According to Husserl's phenomenological method and the approach of Hidegger's present existence analysis, Hegel's interpretation of "immediate" and "self" as existence of things and the existence of things, capturing existence. As a classic of French philosophy of the twentieth century, it is also an immortal masterpiece that is positioned as a source of various contemporary thought.

◆ 11:Beyond freedom and dignity: B · F · Skinner / translated by Hiroshi Yamagata

Nuclear war, food shortage, environmental destruction .... How can we solve the problems that mankind faces? Ask the environment for the cause of behavior rather than the mind and preach to scientifically create a better world. Skinner who had a tremendous influence on the psychological world of the 20th century was a long-awaited new translation, a masterpiece that rippled over the view of freedom and dignity.

◆ 12:Candido et al. Five Voices: Voltaire / Ueda Yuuji

"Pleasure reading a book: Voltaire "Candido" Plowing my own garden"The blog entry is pretty straightforward as an explanation of the contents.

Philosophical teacher Pangloth taught by Leibniz 's best doctrine taught by Panglos purely believes Cindy, but the reality is full of misery and suffering, filled with hard and severe incidents. I will be kidnapped by my hometown, and I will die from my teacher Pangloth and my beloved Kyunegondo. What is the best condition that the best theater tells us? Even such a difficult and severe reality can be called the best. Sometimes, things you like come around. I reunite with my teacher and mistress who I thought was dead. However, it is short-lived, soon to live separately.

Not only the main character and the persons around it but also the people such as the royal aristocracy, clergy, military personnel, citizens and others appearing in the story are being manipulated by maliciousness coming from their own ego or being touched by fate There is no one who is happy. He is accusing the reality of the dark side of the European society without counting counties such as court corruption, religious trials, war, pirates, betrayal, fraud, syphilis.

However, there is only one exception place. It is El Dorado which is in the outback of South America. Eldorado is the legendary ideal boundary, but Candido loses from here by accident. There, the gold and silver jewels fill the earth, but people also do not look. Food is abundantly distributed, people's hearts are rich and benevolent. Despite being such a dreamlike ideal boundary, Candido will not stay in El Dorado, but will return to Europe where harsh reality waits. Voltaire's message is felt that you face the reality rather than a dream or vision, and live powerfully there. In fact, Candido faces severe reality in most places except for El Dorado, but continues forward without cramping.

◆ 13:Sorrow's civil disobedience - resist the bad "citizen government": Henry David Thoreau / Masahiko Sato

In 1846, Thoreau of 29 years old was arrested for imprisonment refused payment of "head tax". Based on that experience, the government preaches the existence like "monster" and himself "prepared to live as a good citizen".

◆ 14:Common sense and other three episodes: Thomas Payne / Haruo Komatsu translated

"Common sense" means "common sense" in Japanese, and there are many people who know this name in world history etc, but although it is closer to "brochure" than books, Influence is tremendous, reaching 120 thousand copies in the first three months of the population of 2.5 million at the time, and finally reaching 500 thousand copies, and how much history changed by setting new "common sense" The followingReviewIt is summarized briefly.

Doubting "common sense", reconsidering, it is difficult to create new "common sense". As it is also in Japan today, we reconsider "common sense" (common sense, recognition, customs, institution etc) deeply rooted in society, refute the discourse of opposition, spin a new "common sense" and spread it It is a very painstaking process to go. This book Thomas Pain "Common sense" has succeeded in presenting and accepting a new "common sense" of independence into society while exposing the insaneness of "common sense" under the existing British colonial system It is a historical document.

I will read the British constitution that I can boast and clarify its structural defects. Discourage "common sense" that hereditary monarchy is the only way to prevent unnecessary civil war and contribute to peace. In addition, patriotic 'common sense' that Britain is a "motherland". Economic "common sense" that the prosperity of the United States was brought by the UK and that future ties with the UK are necessary, and it will become profitable. A military 'common sense' that the United States is unable to oppose the British military force at all despite independence. Paine highlighted its insaneity in a simple and persuasive manner while presenting grounds one by one, in a number of these "common sense" widely and widely deeply rooted in society that stands as a barrier to separation from the UK While arguing that the Independence Declaration is the most reasonable and realistic way to the United States.

What has been thought of as "common sense" also becomes irrational insane as time passes. That is what Pain tells us, and that "common sense" always has room for reconsideration. To such a critical rationalism it seems like a glimpse of the realism that supported the American independence revolution. Come along with "The Federalist" (Iwanami Bunko).

◆ 15:Marx · Engels Communist Party Declaration: Marx, Engels / Oiuchi Hyubei · Translated by Tsuyoshi Mukaka

This declaration beginning with a famous phrase "history of every society to date is the history of class struggle" is the basic literature of Marxism which clarified the role of proletariat in class struggle. Marx (1818-83) and Engels (1820-95) drafted in 1847, the historical document which guided all proletarian movements since the announcement just before the February revolution of the following year.

◆ 16:Confession over: Augustine / Hattori Eijiro translation

What on earth are you "confessing" by the following in-depth Hall of Fame reviewsersReviewIt is well organized.

A book that talks about the past from the current viewpoint while Augustine is thinking about theology and philosophical things such as God.

In the first volume, I will tell you from early childhood to the age of 33. Childhood, having neglected learning,

Even if it is said to be an academic story, it states that it was a messy Roman myth, and mourn the people who are distracted by grammatical errors rather than to God.

Things that stealed with everyone at the age of 16, being enthusiastic about the theater, what was attracted to Maniacism,

I will talk about friends who conspire with stealing and on the other hand comforting.

Subsequently, what was not explained well in Manichae, cohabitation, encounter with ambrosius Milanian bishop and Catholic understanding,

An engagement with a ten-year-old girl (!), His own thoughts, finally being baptized, and soon mother Monica died.

Although I confess and impeach all aspects of my past in my present Catholic position,

No matter how we fall, I desire baptism for my son, there is always the appearance of my mother Monica who kept praying for my son.

To avoid himself with Catholic harsh eyes, it is often amazing to do from a non religious human who lives in contemporary Japan.

This book is divided into 9 volumes with only the first volume, and further divided into chapters among them in detail, so each chapter is at most several pages,

You can also read it little by little. The letter is small, and the translation is occasionally difficult to understand (original text is difficult)

Why does the sentence that started like this end like this? It was also often thought.

◆ 17:On Confession: Jean Jacques Rousseau / Translated by Takeo Kuwabara

The contents of Rousseau's "confession" are as followsReviewIt is easy to understand and understand.

It is autobiography leading to childhood, boys, adolescents, middle-aged and elderly during the 53 years of Ruso (death of 1779) for 53 years in 1765 (upper, middle and lower). The idea before adolescence is literary. It seemed to me that sort of sorrow, sadness was flowing on the base. Reminiscent of conflicting emotions such as sweet and painful. However, without carelessly going beyond beautification, I am frankly describing my character, personality, environment, experience, etc. After middle-aged, you can see how Rousseau suffering from human relations becomes paranoid. I'm low but I want to go out to the world. However, it falls into a dilemma because of sociability.
Rousseau's feelings for women are the main pillars of this autobiography. Rousseau speaking of love at the time has a fever. But how much was your affection for your wife Teresa? There is a fact that the infant was put into an orphanage. It seems to be caused by economic circumstances, but it could not have been without guilt. Rousseau's defense is also there, but it was morally it should have been avoided. I also did not leave my head saying "Why?" Rusoe and Therese 's grief is grasped. The greatness of Rousseau's thought is acceptable. However, we can not help putting a question mark on the validity of this act. Perhaps there is a secret that is not mentioned in "confession". "Confession" speaks of himself indefinitely, but the description of an orphanage is important because the description is asserted. However, it may be a painful past that can only suppress the cry of voice by speaking frantically. Rousseau's lifetime has one aspect of lifestyle of suffering one's life of an idealist and giving up the baby. I was made to think about the multifaceted nature of living.

◆ 18:The Complete Works of Aristotle: The Revised Oxford Translation, Vol. 2: Aristotle / edited by Jonathan Barne

It is a complete collection of all 12 volumes issued by Oxford University Press Division, and in Japan Iwanami Shoten is a new centennial publication commemorating the founding of 100 years,"New version Aristotle Complete Works Vol. 20 Volume + Separate Volume"It is supposed to give out for the first time in 40 years since "Aristotle's Complete Works" (17 volumes) which was published from 1968 to 1973. already"New version Aristotle Complete Work Vol. 1 "Theory of Category Theory""New version of Aristotle Vol. 5 Volume 5 "About generation and extinction about the heavenly world""Has appeared, and"New version of Aristotle Vol. 7 Volume 7 "The spiritual study of natural science on the soul""Is scheduled to be published on February 7, 2014.

◆ 19:Empirical philosophy lecture:Auguste Cont

Conta is known for advancing the three-step law at the beginning of this book. The three-step law argues that all concepts and knowledge go through three stages. According to the contest, the spirit of the human being has become an empirical stage through the theological stage, metaphysical stage so far, each stage has a characteristic thinking style. First of all in the theological stage all knowledge is explained by a direct desire from a religious and theological point of view. In the metaphysical stage abstraction and characterization are done and explained as objects. And at the empirical stage phenomena are explained by general law based on the observation of things. After grasping the stage of development of the intelligence of a new human being through such a stage, the control classifies science. CONT considered that this classification is necessary to be a representation of general facts required by comparing phenomena. Contos established mathematics first by maturity, astronomy secondly, thirdly physics, fourth chemistry, fifth to biology, sixth sociology. Sociology here is the first calling designation by Conta, sociology has social static science as order and social dynamics as development, the former studies society as an organism, the latter three stages It is regarded as an academic field that studies social development that has developed in accordance with the law of. About social development Conta was thinking that society is at a military stage at the theological stage, it is in the legal stage at the metaphysical stage, and at the industrial stage at the empirical stage.

◆ 20:Criticism of Pure Reason: Kant / Translate Hideo Shinoda

Humans have words, connect words and think about things, but Kant pursued thoroughly how to work it with respect to human ability, that is, ability called "reason". This is because the way each person lives depends on how the human being thinks things with their reason. Reason is working not only in scenes of scientific knowledge but also in scenes of thinking about something with morality, something beautiful, God and religion. In order to avoid error that absolutely only scientific knowledge, and to not get into superstition and fanatics, it is necessary to make reasons work correctly in all these scenes. Kant went on the path of criticism of reasoning with the aim of securing freedom and dignity of human beings.

◆ 21:Wiener Cybernetics - Control and communication in animals and machines: Norbert Wiener / Ikuhara Takuo, Iyenaga Masayoshi, Muroga Saburo, Toda Iwao Translation

A pioneering book trying to capture from the work of the mind to life and society as a dynamic control system. The book title itself in this book creates a new discipline area and has a great influence not only in the field of natural sciences but also in the field of social science. It is still the basis of the methodology of research to analyze general nonlinear phenomena such as artificial intelligence and cognitive science, chaos and self organization.

◆ 22:History of the decline of the Roman Empire <1> The Signs of the Five Empires and the Rome of the Roman Empire: Edward Gibbon / Yoshio Nakano

Europe Why was the Roman Empire with the greatest version in the ancient world and proud of its many years prosperous? A timeless answer to this "uninfestable, eternal question" - a complete translation of the great historical book which will be a masterpiece of British historian E. Gibbon. The embossing emperor Commonundus, Caracalla, Domitian and Elagabarus are made to appear, which is a sign of the Emperor of the Five Empires, military power, prosperity, and empire decline.

◆ 23:On the essence of things: Le Cretius / Higuchi Katsuhiko Translation

The value of this book is the following review "The value of this translation"It argues as follows.

I think that it is hard for us to realize the real feeling,
Without intervening the will of the personal absolute person such as God,
To explain the world,
In Western Europe that entered the Christian era,
It was an incredibly heresy, blaspheming way of eliminating the language.
That is impossible. The meaning of morality gone.
Also prone to be treated as heretics, Aristotle, like protinos
Even the three major Greek philosophers assumed God-like existence.

Among them, I draw out ideas leading to modern natural science,
Along with Epicross, it continued to be a precious source of hinsoli and its precious
The importance of this work by Lucretius is serious.
It continues to support the hearts of potentially atheists, those who were natural scientists.

From the viewpoint of humanism, the splendor of the style,
It will help to encourage the occurrence of modern natural science by giving high value to this book.

In addition, translator Katsuhiko Higuchi was legendary in its Latin ability,
Unfortunately, for perfectionism, it was also known for the stoicness of the amount of work.
This book is valuable as one of Professor Higuchi's work.

◆ 24:Fogukkei: Translation by Tomomatsu ullen

Buddha's gold meditation collection made up of 423 beautiful verses, the oldest phrasebook of Buddhism source and introductory book.The elegant translated Japanese translation of Mr. Uematsu Matsumoto living in the legal phrase is the best translator At the end of the book, give a modern translation and commentary on the young master of the teacher

The contents are reviewed by the following hall of fame and the top 50 reviewersCommentaryIt is easy to understand.

Author (translator), in the commentary, about legal phrases,
The word "it is a bible to be prepared for everyone's pocket"
It is introduced, but this is a very easy-to-understand script for everyone.

If it is a Bible (the Bible), "Proverbs (a book in the Old Testament)"
It is like an impression.

The author 's translation and the latter half are all small
A modern translation is on. Since the number is wrapped,
You can easily go back and forth between them.

Nothing (things like "myself" do not exist anywhere), heartlessness,
Many texts familiar to Buddhism such as suffering in life ... are also many,
There are words of meaning like treating yourself like the following, I feel familiar.

(Translated as Tomomatsu 160)

Him well
His bellybottom
Take action on himself
By whom

(Modern translation)
Self is the self-rescuer.
Who can be a rescuer outside this self?
It is only in self that is restrained, we can find other emergency rescuer
You can.

In addition, I have the same book written by the same Kodansha scholarly library "The Legendary Lecture"
This is mostly commentary by Mr. Tomomatsu, I do not have the full text of the legal phrase (only a small part).

Anyway, with empirical content that can be convinced, regardless of the type of reader's religion,
Easy to understand for beginners, I will recommend it to those who are interested.

◆ 25:Astronomical dialogue : Galileo Galilei / Aoki Yasumi Translated

An immortal masterpiece that clarified the foundation of the Copernic system and established a new scientific methodology at the same time. The obstacles and obstacles of the various Scholastic sciences system which Galilei had to face for the theory of the theory of ground movement, and how it was broken out are clearly shown. A major publication that tells the dawn of modern science, it is a declaration of the scientific revolution.

◆ 26:Dictionary of the English Language (English dictionary): Samuel Johnson

Contents can be found on the following siteHistory of English - compilation of dictionariesIt is touched in the article that "

Samuel Johnson, born as a son of a poor bookstore, has been suffering difficulties, such as having poor eyes and ears due to illness at a young age and forced to drop out of college entrance with economic circumstances. It seems to be. Besides compiling the dictionary, he also worked as a poet, an essayist, and a literary critic. This John song published in 1755 is this A Dictionary of the English Language. It is a big feature that it uses quotations of prominent artists such as Shakespeare and Milton in order to contain over 40,000 words and explain the meaning of words. It is said that the number of quotations is as large as 114,000, and the method of incorporating "quotation" into the dictionary had a big influence on the compilation of future dictionaries. Moreover, unlike French dictionaries and others compiled by appointing an enormous number of scholars, about 9 years until publication, using only a few assistants, almost completed by one person It deserves praise and admiration. There was a publication of a dictionary before, but it surpasses other dictionaries much in content, and it seems that it is not exaggeration to say that it is exactly the first full-scale dictionary. I kept absolute status as an authoritative dictionary for a long time until the Oxford English Dictionary was issued at the end of the 19th century.

◆ 27:Methodology Introduction: René Descartes / Hiroaki Yamada

The following review is very good.

It is impossible for us today to read this book of Descartes with prejudice.
This book is known by too famous words "I am thinking, there is me because of me", and it is read with each thought of the reader concerning that word. It is a doomed book to be read like that.
When I begin reading philosophers thinking about classical books, I'm confused that the beginning part is not very philosophical content.
This book is made up of 6 copies, but the first 3 copies are so to speak, so to speak, a so-called preface, talking about the background of Descartes and the discovery of the basic thought of his philosophy developing in Part 4 ing.
The fourth part is the most familiar part of this book and it is the part that talks about the proposition "I am thinking, that is because I am," followed by the proposition of the existence of God. It is only 13 pages in the Japanese translation, and the more it is a bit sluggish, the more it is crisp.
In Part 5, thought based on nature is developed based on the proposition presented in Part 4. In particular, the description on the structure of the heart occupies a lot. This well represents Descartes 'thought that humans and animals' flesh are objects like machines.
In Part 6, the story goes to realistic content rather than the principle in the way up to Part 3, and the circumstances leading to the publication of this book are explained.
Classics are sometimes such things. Speaking of this book, only 13 pages of the 4th part made this book too famous. However, as I read it again, I can read other parts interestingly.

◆ 28:Divine Hell Hen: Dante Alighieri / Mt.

A story "Divine Song" that the poet Dante fulfills the trip of Higan as it is. "Hell hen" begins with a 35-year-old Dante straying into the dark forest allegorizing sin on Thursday, 1300 (April 7). It is guided by Virgil and the great poet of Latin, beginning in the first sphere (jail) in which those who are not baptized are punished for a whole day and night, the dead of hell who can be punished by various crimes such as carnal desire, heresy, betrayal I will go around.

◆ 29:Don Quijote : Cervantes / Ushijima Nobuaki

Although the above translation is six in all, what kind of contents it is finished is the following "The greatest and the most melancholic (?) BookIt's easy to understand the review.

Although the title above is Dostoyevsky's remarks, it is a novel full of humor that can not be said to be "melancholy" no no no.
Don Quijote who rushes without listening to the words of the doctor and is helped by Sancho after being ragged.
I am not interested in knight roads and honorary minds, just a part of my master's success, Sancho Panza who is a kind heart that dreams of the island's lord.

Inner reality, a novel that is the grandfather of a modern novel that has been deeply deeply drawn.

The translator, Mr. Ushijima, threw a stone at "Don Quijote" of "Classic Great Drama Who Hears Out Only Too Read".
In consideration of the above facts, he is easy to read and also shows the results of his Cervantes research in its translation,
I am paying attention to making the story smoother.

Even if reading for redundancy, if you think that it is bending, you can skip reading.
Still, the fun of this novel will be transmitted well, and this redundant description, the episode is a habitual one of those days.
Cervantes himself is supposed to be asked to read "distraction" in the preface,
Why not read it slowly without putting strength?

By the way, a famous scene that assaults the windmill is included in .

◆ 30:Kierkegaard's work collection That, this one: S. Kierkegaard

A comment on what kind of content is Wikipedia's "Is that me?"It is very detailed and gathered as follows.

This book begins with a preface to describe the circumstances that Viktor Eremita obtained two notes from the desk drawer and the way it was published. A completely different idea is contrasted with each other in A's note which sent an aesthetic life and B's note which chose an ethical life.

Aesthetic life that are mentioned in the memoirs of A contains the contents such as the following. Content of contemporary tragedy and classical tragedy has a difference in the concept of sin in tragedy, the Greek tragedy is a crime caused by extrinsic conflict, but the tragedy in modern times like Antigone is a conscious of intrinsic sin regarded as. We have taken up the Reflective sorrow that can not be expressed to the outside in the artistic about the human sorrow. And discuss the most unfortunate person for people who can not live in the present in the hope to be disturbed by the recollection, or in a reminiscence by being obstructed by the hope and are living now. Kierkegaard draws the daughter's shallowness that her daughter is married to another man and throws away the man who is first love, draws the daughter's shallowness to convince him that he is real, and draws seedling farmers changing land to increase crop yield . The aesthetic life pursuing the enjoyment always changes the target by seeking stimuli, and becomes bored when the change disappears. Boredom occurs based on the sense of emptiness, which causes "dizziness" to humans. In order to avoid it, humans live in capitalism seeking new distractions one by one. According to Kirkegaard 's view, the destination of aesthetic life is despair.

In B's note it is written as a letter to the author of A, a friend who is embraced in aesthetic life. First of all, regarding the aesthetic value of marriage, the real issue of marriage is to combine the element of love with the strict internality, and it is stated that frankness and integrity are the conditions of marriage. I believe that there must be no marriage with secrecy, internal honesty is important in marriage love, and we must preserve eternity against any aged deterioration. In other words, in human life humans need to choose one of "this or this", and it is claimed to choose an ethical life contradictory to it for aesthetic life. This choice is free to do and achieves the obligation of ethical life and his mission by free decision. People who can not realize universal human beings are aware that they themselves are exceptional persons who have reached the limit of their personality and that they acquire the corresponding internal nature.

◆ 31:Encyclopedia - Introduction and Representative Item: Diderot / Dalan Bale Hen / Translated by Takeo Kuwabara

Although it is a very famous book in world history, as to the contents of that it pointed out in the following review "It was surprisingly unbalanced contentsIt is very convincing thing.

This book is one of the kinds of books that only name is preceded, but in fact there are few things you have read.
When I actually read it, I was amazed by its versatile content.
It can be said that there is no sense of unity, and I received the impression that the author of each item left the contents.
It is good that the introduction by Diderot is long, the same Manufacture of Diderot is 10 pages, the item of Peace is only 4 pages.
On the other hand, the luxury item goes up to 36 pages.
From the viewpoint of "enlightenment thought", its imbalance can not be understood by modern people.
The most surprising item was technology. It was to appeal the importance of technology that tends to be seen lower than science.

◆ 32:Eneades (extract) <1>: Protinos / Michitaro Tanaka, Mune Mizuki, Translated by Tanno Oku

Desire to want to recognize the structure of the world or the whole existence and want to equalize self to the supreme one My longing ... ... a philosophical book hoping for "approaching and unifying the god above all things".

◆ 33:Enquiry Concerning Political Justice: William Godwin

Author'sWilliam GodwinAnarchistism (Anarchism), The historical position of this book is as follows.

Immediately after the French Revolution in 1793, Godwin 's most successful book "Political Justice," and its Influence on General Virtue and Happiness literally translated into "political justice and its influence on general virtues and happiness ") Was sold at a price of only 3 Guineas with 2 fold editions. Instantly the author became known as the most influential social philosopher at the time, and the book was given the status to line up with Milton's "Aleopagitika", Rock's "Educational Theory", Rousseau's "Emile." Youth poets such as Saudi, Coleridge, and Wordsworth were then university students, but devotedly read this book and made it a source of political education. "Political justice" has been rewritten in 4th edition, the aftermath of the French Revolution expanded in the UK, the prime minister pit came out to suppress crutches, Godwin relaxed attacks against the government and property after the second edition.

◆ 34:Esse <1>: Michel de Montaigne / Translated by Shiro Miyashita

Michel de Montaigne is a moralist, a 16th century French thinker. "Eze (remembrance)" left by him is the culmination of classic knowledge and at the same time accepted as an intellectual book of intellectuals from long ago, and depending on the method of truth exploration and the depth of human recognition, Descartes, Pascal etc. It influenced the thinker and has been read by many people as a classic masterpiece until today.
The phrase "What does I know (Koo Se - Ju)?" Is the word of Montaigne, humbly acknowledging that there is a limit to human reason, judgment, knowledge, trial and error It is a good representation of Montaigne's idea that he tried to pursue the truth without fear.
In translation, Mr. Miyashita, translator, wrote as follows. "My basic policy is to do something that you can read with a refreshed feeling anyway. Of course, because Montaigne himself is not doing a clear writing style, this neighborhood is pretty tightrope work Still there is no choice to become a substitute.Still, I somehow manage to build a fresh translated text and I want to surely convey the book of this life to the next generation. "
Let me give an example. "Let's wait here everywhere, since it is not certain where the death is waiting, thinking in advance about death is nothing less than thinking about freedom The man who has learned how to die will forget the slave's heart It was a human being who could do it. "

◆ 35:Spinoza Echica: Benedictus de Spinoza / translated by Ichiro Sato

Bertrand Russell says. "There are nobody great philosophers who are noble and fond of Spinoza, it is ethically superb." Spinoza, as an atheist, had been touched by its name for a while after his death. But he rose. Lessing and Goethe, Novalis, Heine. Romantic poets, George Eliot. And in the 20th century Freud, Joyce, Borges, Deleuze ... ....
Ethica, among other works, is dedicated to attracting readers. "Ethica" which argues thrilling according to the form of Euclidean geometry about human freedom, true happiness while preaching God = nature. A new translation of this great classic headed towards the conclusion that "everything with joy is rare as well as being rare".

◆ 36:Euclidean Principles Supplement: Euclid / Nakamura Koshiro, Teraka Eitaka, Ito Shuntaro, Ikeda Mie

It is a book that established the status of so-called "mathematics", and as a contentEuclidean geometryFirst, rather than this original work, "What is Euclid 'Theory' - The Classics of Mathematics Read for 2,000 YearsIt should be easier to read if you read the contents of "

"No royal road to geometry" is known as Euclid's word. More permanently immortal is a book "original theory" which decided the style of today's mathematical book called proposition, theorem, proof. Too much wasteful description of this book has caused many mysteries conversely and is causing many controversies of the past. Euclid That person is also a mystery. Who on earth did you try to write what? While reading the original text, it approaches that truth.

◆ 37:Studies on Hybrid Plants: Mendel / Kunio Iwatsuki, Translated by Yoshimasa Suhara

It is a book of Mendel who has found the law of "genetic" which is necessarily learned in high school organisms, and it is extremely easy to read because it is written very easily.

With a hint of artificial mating to make new varieties of cultivated plants, Mendel (1822-84) conducted pea hybridization experiments in the garden of the monastery in Brno. This paper strictly verified experiments carried out in a highly scientific manner was not recognized in value at the time, it was rediscovered in 1900 and the name of Mendel was born in the fundamental law that defines the foundation of genetics It became a thing.

◆ 38:Creation of a new woman: Betty Freedan / Translation by Miura Fumiko

The contents are as followsReviewIt is touched in detail in.

From the response of the questionnaire that the author who passed 15 years after graduating from women's university to 200 synchronous people answered, how much difference between the actual life of women and the image the women were trying to adapt, and why It is a book that has been specifically described based on various examples and facts. The fact that I was a college student at this time was a shocking fact that a housewife who is in the warm "my home" in the United States of that longing for years was never happy.
Praise of femininity Motherhood myth by Freud Women as consumers
Various troubles and sufferings of women who became housewives by being incorporated into various "traps" are drawn in a glimpse. It is the foundation of the way women live feminine way to avoid "the desire to grow" which is the essential desire of human beings, and people who admire "femininity" can become a real "female" by doing so It is said that many women actually do. · Do not be passionate about anything · Living through others Many American women are suffering in this "trash".
In particular, the following passage was deeply impacted: "People must know how much a terrible feeling of embarrassment is given to women to be housewives, for a competent contemporary woman it is a housewife In a sense, the woman who adapts as a housewife or who wishes to "just want to be a housewife" hopes to grow, and in the Nazi camp, the number of living waiting only for death It is said to be the same fate as a million people. "

◆ 39:The First Folio of Shakespeare (Shakespeare's First Collection): William Shakespeare / Carlton Heinmann's Edition / Peter W. M. Brainny Foreword

this"First Folio"The official title of" William · Shakespeare's comedy, historical theater, tragedy "Contentsis.

· 1 Tempest (first appearance)
· Two gentleman of Verona (first appearance)
· 3 cheerful wives of Windsor
· The scale was first released on 4 scale
· 5 comedy of mistake (first appearance)
· 6 sway
· 7 Fragile Fragmentation of Love
· 8 Summer Night's Dream
· 9 merchants in Venice
· 10 favorite movies (first appearance)
· 11 Shabu-Nabe Rasa (first appearance)
· 12 OK if all is OK (first appearance)
· 13 nights (first appearance)
· 14 Winter Story (first appearance)

Historical drama
· 15 King John (first appearance)
· 16 Richard II
· 17 Henry IV · Part 1
· 18 Henry IV's Part 2
· 19 Henry V
· 20 Henry VI Part 1 (first appearance)
· 21 Henry VI Part 2
· 22 Henry VI Part 3
· 23 Richard the 3rd
· 24 Henry VIII (first appearance)

· 25 Troilus and Cresida
· 26 Coriolenas (first appearance)
· 27 Titus · Andronicus
· 28 Romeo and Juliet
· 29 Timon of Athens (first appearance)
· 30 Julius · Caesar (first appearance)
· 31 Macbeth (first appearance)
· 32 Hamlet
· 33 Lear King
· 34 Othello
· 35 Antony and Cleopatra (first appearance)
· 36 CINBERIN (first appearance)

◆ 40:First Principles (First Principle): Herbert Spencer

What kind of book is "17 Spencer BoomAccording to the following, it is as follows.

A philosophical book located at the beginning of the comprehensive system and discussed the principle of the evolution of the entire universe. Natsume Soseki also said that he borrowed from a friend during college preparatory period.

◆ 41:Gargantua - Garganture and Pan Tag Ruel <1>: François Rabelais / Miyashita Shigeru Translating

Based on the Top 1000 reviewers belowReviewSince it touches contents, it becomes a reference.

It seems that the translation of the fifth book has finally been completed, so I read it from this first book.

Time is the story of when Carl V of the Habsburg family and François I of the Varoa family fought over Italy.

"To Pochu Poncho, Biwako-kun, Taro, Fumino Mamially, you will fall down on us, clouds of clouds Pigeon, it's full of poo, funny guy Even though your hole opened everything with a pocket, everything that went away without fail would be burned with St. Antonius heat! "

Like this, the skill of this word play, the sense of modern language not in the former Watanabe translation!

In the first half such a story and a funny feeling, farting uproar continues, but the story will suddenly become serious from around the Pichorcol war when the horsemen skirmishes became the beginning, why! I feel it. But that is charming, if you win the war, this is also a stubborn story repeated, so be safe ...

Those who commit adultery with a nun are the city legend of the time that they die while erecting · · ·
It was decided that the market was put in the monastery for women, whether it was a single eye, a basketball, a pimple, a busy, a bastard, a crazy, a spinning, a disabled person, a malformation, All you want to say anymore!

Well, since this is the only thing I'd like to say, the last is to build a foolish monastery for sin to crush, this man called Gargantua.

♦ 42:General Theory of Employment, Interest, Money: John Maynard Keynes, John Richard Hicks, Paul Krugman / Translated by Hiroshi Yamagata

Things can not be sold, there is no job - Why does the market sometimes stop functioning with free laissez? In the global recession, Keynes is thoroughly looking at the errors and limitations of the classical school economics which he himself can communicate with, and finally reached this book which is the basis of contemporary economics. Ideal form of social science, an act of updating the theory radically to face the real world. We also collected important papers of Hicks formulating the outline of this book.

◆ 43:New Testament Gospels: Translation by Tsukamoto Tori II

The Four Gospels put at the beginning of the New Testament recorded the speech of Jesus Christ, and informed this as a "joyous delight, good news". In this book version, translators who devoted their half life to the realization of their spoken translations are innovative which devised meticulous devises for accuracy and understandability only to the academic position to the last without being caught by the tradition of the church It is a personal translation Bible.

◆ 44:Guide for the Perplexed (Guidance for the Lost People): Moshe Mi Mohn

Wikipedia's "Moshe Ben = My MornAccording to ", it has the following contents.

In addition, the philosophical book "Guidance for those who are lost" was a call to philosophers who lost their faith, whose purpose was to appease Aristotle and Judaism theology. I tried to understand the meaning hidden in the scripture of the Torah by using Aristotelian and Arab philosophers' views such as Farrabee and Ibn Sniener, and rationally interpreted Judaism theology. Aristotle is an authority on the world under the moon, but he says that revelation is an authority on the heavenly world. However in philosophical knowledge philosophy and revelation coalesce, pursuit of truth is a religious duty. In the Islamic world controversial, conservative thought Jewish faction incinerated Mosher 's philosophy book. Although the thought was criticized as being too rational too much, it influenced the posterity as a pioneer of the philosophical interpretation of the Bible.

Later, the "guidance for people who are lost" is translated into Latin and received high acclaim from Christian theologians such as Albertus Magnus, Thomas Aquinas, Eckhart and others.

◆ 45:Harmony of the Universe: Johannes Kepler / Yoshihiko Kishimoto

The six planets, including the Earth, move around the sun while playing harmonic sounds!
The outcome of the "New Astronomy" (1609) that made up the first and second law by collaboration with Tycho Brahe and the universe model of five regular polyhedra proposed in the maiden work "The mystery of the universe" (1596) Historical masterpiece that integrated and established the third law. It is the first complete translation in Japan from the Latin origin.
The treasure in European thought history revives to nearly 400 years.

◆ 46:Hebrew Bible

Wikipedia's "Hebrew Bible"The contents are as follows.

Hebrew Bible (Hebrew goddess, (Hebrew: תַנךְךְךְ, תֹוָרָה, נביאים ו (-) כתובים)) is the Jewish "Bible". Tanaha, Micra. It is written in the Bible Hebrew (Biblical Hebrew) and is a Jewish "Biblical Orthodox". The first five books (Hebrew: חָמׁשׁ, Pentateuch, narrowly "Torah") and the whole Tanah (Toler, Hebrew: תֹוָרָה) are "composition tora, composition law (Hebrew: תֹוָרָה שֶׁ (-) בְכָתָב (Hebrew: תֹוָרָה שֶׁ (-) בַעַל - פהה, Oral Law), mainly as "Dual Torah", as Written Torah, Written Law. "Toler (תֹוָרָה) [1]" is the meaning of teaching, instruction, theory, theory, arithmetic (תֹוַרַת הַ (-) חְׁשּבֹוֹן), logic (תֹוַרַת הַ (-) הָּגָּיוֹן), epistemology (תֹוַרַת הַ (-) הָּכָרָה), as in common nouns. Oral Torah became synonymous with "Talmud (" Learning ").

The first five books are "Chumash (חָמׁשׁ)", in terms including Christian nuances "Five Books Pentateuch, Moses Five Books Five Books of Moses (Hebrew: חִמָּׁשָּׁה חְמֵׁשֵׁי תוֹרה)" The word translation "ביבליה" itself already contains Christian nuances). In the original Hebrew word "St. (קֶדׁשׁ, קָדוׁשׁ, קּדּוׁשׁ)" is meant to mean a special, special, dedicated, dedicated, dedicated, spent, spared.

◆ 47:The Corpus: The Hippocratic Writings (Hippocratic Collection): Hippocrates

Wikipedia's "Hippocrates complete collectionIt is written what kind of book it is in.

"Hippocratic Complete Works" (Luo: Corpus Hippocraticum, also "Hippocratic Sources") is a collection of over 70 medical documents written in an ancient Greek Ionian dialect, compiled around the 3 rd century BC. It has been over 100 years since the death of Hippocrates until compilation, and since every document is bearer, there is no answer to the question of how much document Hippocrates himself was involved in. Many works of Hippocratic school (Cos school) doctors are included, but also works that are seen as the Knidos school and other schools. There is also the theory that the number of authors in the whole collection is a maximum of 19 people. It is unknown whether the manuscripts that were in the school library of Kos Island were compiled across the Alexandria library or that bearer medical texts that had been circulated in the streets were contained in the Alexandria Library, but it was not until the end of the third century BC A group of medical works acknowledged as hypocratic theories were established and became a complete collection in a form transmitted today.

Various types of documents such as clinical records, medical textbooks, lecture notes, research notes, philosophical essays, etc. are stored in random order in Hippocratic complete collection, written from a medical expert to an outsider a wide range of readers ing. As prominent documents, there are "Opportunities of Hippocrates", "Prognosis Theory", "Acute Disease Care Regimen", "Proverbs", "Air, Water, Place", "epidemic diseases", "About sacred diseases" About medical science "and the like. However, according to editor W. Jones of "Hippocrates Selection" (Love version), only 1 and 3 of "prognosis theory", "acute disease regimen", and "epidemic disease" are " A scientific paper with no superstition and philosophical residues written before a time passes ".

◆ 48:Historical: Herodotus / Chiaki Matsudaira

belowReviewYou can understand what kind of book it is if you read it.

"Egypt is the gift of Nile" (page 164 of this book), a famous phrase that always comes out as a history textbook, and that alone knows the value of this book. An ancient Roman politician called Cicero "Father of History" is a nod to talk about, content is diverse, it covers the geography and customs of each region excellent historical book. Without this we can not tell the history of the ancient Greek / Orient.

Herodotus' stance in this history book fears that "events of the human world will be forgotten as time goes on" and fearing that it will be forgotten, and history will be replaced as "battle of the gods" like the Trojan War and forgotten It is thought that he felt as a record, and in that respect Herodotus could be said to be "the ancestor of historical studies".

For this reason, at the beginning, the beginning of the case where the Trojan War occurs is taken together with the arguments of both parties, and the historical stance of Herodotus who tried to eliminate by trying the part of the myth is virtually here It can be said that it is appearing.

After that, the topic shifted to the way the Persian war broke out, it started with the story of the Redua Kingdom that will be destroyed by the emerging countries Persia, and the story of Cyrus II of the Persian Empire's founder Volume 1 ". Volume 2 "Volume of Eutelpe" is Egyptian customs and history before it was conquered by Persia. Volume 3 "Taleia no Tame" is until Egypt is conquered by Persia.

In addition, one sentence at the beginning symbolizes the character of this book very much,ReviewThat is touched on that.

This book, written by one Greek person around the 5th century BC, begins with the moving sentences like the following. "This book is written by Herodotus, a Haroicus nassos, who has been forgotten by the events of the human world as time goes on, and a number of great marvelous places that Greeks and Gentiles (Barbaroy) played - notably for whatever cause The circumstances as to whether the battle has come to bear from - also, in the fear of becoming unknown to the people of the world, it describes what he studied. "

Here, the idea of ​​investigating it and leaving it to describe is expressed clearly, afraid that the real thing of the past and the present will not be known to future generations, and in fact it is executed as much as possible at the time Has been done. I think this is truly amazing human intelligence. However, since 2,500 years since then, knowledge and wealth have certainly increased, but it seems that the intelligence is not polished to that extent.

In the first volume, we distinguish historical facts from the time of the author's era 100 years or more, traditions from old times and others from others, and the region from the Greek region, Lydia to Persia, Egypt etc. It is written in the advanced region of Africa, India and the Caucasus up to the Persian War while referring to its history and geography.

Although I think that it is interesting even if reading through as a story is interesting, the individual event being told at that time, the person's way of thinking at the time, the opinion of Herodotus, if it is deepening the culture of history, it is more interesting and endless.

◆ 49:From the War History: Transcendio / Translated by Masaaki Kubo

belowReviewIt expresses contents well, it is easy to understand the position in world history.

An authority of international relations theory, J. Nye's standard textbook "International conflict" appears at the beginning of the book, the best classic of international relations theory. Reprint publication by Iwanami Shoten is extremely welcome.
Well, focusing on diplomacy, of course, I focus on diplomacy and I am reading this book, but there is also a reading from a different viewpoint, and I think that is a fascination of classics.
My question is, "Why did not Sparta focus on Athens' capture?" There were three reasons why it was impossible. One thing was that there was no full-time army. The siege of Athens will take several years. It is difficult to paste the army for only that period. However, in other areas it was military action including overwintering, so it can not be the biggest reason. Another is diplomacy with allies. As a matter of course, enormous war expenses will be applied to the siege, making it burdensome, attaching agreement to the Athens siege strategy itself, and all the other costs. The end is the problem of logistics. Perhaps the biggest problem in this era seems to be that it was more difficult to "eat" the army itself than to organize the army itself. Given that one of the objectives of a short-term expedition to Athens was destruction of the field, it is also understood.
Perhaps this book seems to have been read as "education" at many military schools in modern times, but what I remember here is that the Japanese military has not missed the idea that this logistics should be neglected (It goes without saying that another important element is intelligence - intelligence - along with innovation - innovation -). Even for that "Three Kingdoms", it clearly shows that the reason why Zhuge Liang failed to the last in Wei's capture was this logistic problem.
I think that having a wide historical perspective not only for soldiers but also for all human beings.
Five stars.

◆ 50:Myself · You · Dialogue: Martin · Boober / Translated by Shigeo Ueda

Top 1000 reviewersPeople grow only by relationships with peopleThe following review is very easy to understand.

Bouver sees the world as a relationship between each human being and each other's existence. On that basis, there are two kinds in the world.
One is, for example, the world of 'wow' which is a world deeply connected with myself, such as relationships with lovers, family, close friends.
Another is the world of seeking knowledge about the world of experience, the world of time and space, the nature of things. The world of.
When a human goes through a relationship with yourself, Boover tells us. It presents a totally different view of the world with Descartes' philosophers who think about human beings and the world in confrontation.
Bouver, a religious owner, says that the relationship between God and man is also a relationship between you and me.
In addition, as modern society inevitably has been made to fall into the world of it, warnings are issued to regain the world with .
In Japan, after 3 · 11, the word "Kizuna" became popular, but that is exactly the relationship of "I'm yours". There are many things we can learn from this book.

◆ 51:Chupa : Takada Shinji, Goto's translation

belowReviewIt briefly shows the contents.

I was doubtful as to why the fortune telling was included among the four books.
I happened to read that Chungkyun was introduced to Jung's book, and then I read it with interest as one of the four books.

Jung may be thought as a connection with universal collective unconscious by using the word of synchronicity and it may have been called a way in China, but how to live how to obey fate It seems that the hint of this is taken in here.
If you read this book, is actually fortunetelling? You know how to do (although Iwanami!). I also try it from time to time, but in a good or bad state, the message will be conveyed that you should do the way of life that kept courtesy correctly.
In this book, it is said that it is not easy to become a master of Chaeng. I interpret it as being a story that gurus can live according to destiny.

◆ 52:Leibniz 's work collection <2> mathematics / mathematics: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz / Kanjiro Hara, Toru Yoshi Hara, Nobuo Miura, Nori Saito, Takashi Kurata, Takashi Sasaki, Iku Baba, Masato Ando translation

As for how wonderful it is, in April 1986Publication's speechYou can understand it.

"Why Leibniz now?" Is not a problem. For us, Leibniz is neither the "now" nor the "now" problem. "People" everywhere and always "problem". The 17th century is said to be "the era of genius." Leibniz was the most genius genius of that genius era. That knowledge and penetration do not see the ratio to the world now. The publication of the complete collection was launched in Germany shortly after World War I but has not yet been completed, it will cost 100 years in the future.


It is very difficult to get to know Leibniz's achievements. Not only is the volume of writing large, the personality is special, it is written in several different languages. The books to be offered to scholars are written in Latin, the conversation with the fellows of the court is French, and the works directed at a few intelries in their own country were written in German. If you want to read Leibniz in original text, you have to make three languages. If a reliable translation is available at will, his achievement will be accessible to more people.

◆ 53:Calvin Christianity Requirements (1): Calvin / Nobuo Watanabe

What is content is belowReviewIt shows briefly.

According to Calvin, human beings are totally corrupt and God is absolutely good absolute. And in the scheduled theory we do not influence God's choice depending on our thoughts and actions, and God is said to choose those chosen by sovereignty and those to be abandoned. When the grace of God approaches humans, sinners (humans with transgendered sins since Adam) can not refuse it. And those who were saved by God have never been destroyed and have been saved forever. The death of the cross of Christ has infinite power, but it shows power only to those who are saved and go to heaven. We have to consider one form of God's persona, the Holy Spirit here. It is the Holy Spirit who wrote the Bible. In other words, John and Paul did not write the Bible, but inspired John and Paul and wrote what he had to write. But it does not mean that the Bible reporter was automatically written by dictation or the like, but it describes what you have to write without breaking the characters of the reporters. Calvin was an excellent organization theologian, but sometimes I crossed the Bible in some places at the time of writing "Christianity Guide". However, it is not an exaggeration to say that it is declared that we are still being carried on his theory such as the analogy of the Bible, the theory of the daughter, the relationship between the law and the gospel, the justification, the schedule and the prediction, It is. But writing such a thing will make him angry. Because he is a scholar who valued human humility more than any other person.

◆ 54:Dream judgment: Freud / translated by Takahashi Yoshitaka

Top 500 reviewers "About Freud's textual character of dream judgmentThe explanation of "is very easy to understand.

In this book which is the representative work volume of the early Freud's, the dream is aspiration sufficiency, and the memory compression and movement are performed in the process of creating a dream, with a story of familiar story such as "Illa's injection dream", "edepus · complex" What is said to be said.

When extracting only the explanation of such reasons introductoryly it is supposed that there should be tens of pages originally enough why the volume of 400 pages in the bunko is said to be preceded by Freud 's own family, family, patient cases It is because enormous reference to research and literature is done. I think that Freudian psychoanalysis is a process of interpreting unconscious mechanisms of analysts, but indeed, with regard to Freud himself, family member, and patient cases written in this book, Reading "has been continued. Such comprehensibility is highly compatible with literaryity / textability and there may be one reason why Freud's theory continues to exert wide-ranging influence on literary criticism and philosophy. And in that sense, while referring to Shakespeare, Goethe, Daede, Zora etc as well as "King of Edips", logic is constructed while religiously quoting and criticizing previous studies Such literatureism and text It is interesting that sex was built-in from the beginning.

In the last part of this book, I will explain the compression theory by considering the dream thought (latent content) and the dream contents (overt contents) separately, and explain a strange coined word that often appears in a dream. (Actually, I've never seen a dream that I've lived for 40 years and I've never coined.

"The existence of the compression work of the dream is most clear when this work selects and gives the word and the name to the object to be compressed from now.The dream often treats the word as things and Language experiences a synthesis effect similar to the representation of things. "(Page 382)

Freud interests in this quotation part are going to enter the language effect in dreams, but first I contacted Freud through Rakan, a structuralist, was close to Saussure linguistics that separated the signifians and the signifiers I felt sex and it was very funny. (The story about that part will be imagined / expanded in all aspects of representation action in the bottom volume.) Although it is undeniable that the first person quitting and criticizing the preceding study continues indefinitely, it was boring (lol), but that difficulty in reading I think that it will become interesting suddenly. As it comes to the second half of this book, the dreams of familiar "Aral" series such as dreams falling from high places, dream failing exams, dreams becoming naked only oneself, etc. are also barely analyzed.

◆ 55:Cabala

According to the explanation of "idea" of Wikipedia, it has the following contents.

In Cabala, think of the creation of the world as a process of ten steps of sanctity from God Ein · Sof, interpret that the ultimate form of sanctity is this material world. This process is represented by a symbolic map called a tree of life (Sefiroto) composed of 10 "balls" and 22 "small diameter", and the attribute of God is reflected in that part. Therefore, although Kabbalah is monotheism, it has a world view closer to polytheism and pantheism.

In another interpretation we regard this world as a book. It is to understand everything in this world to decipher this book where everything is written. And that book is written with 22 letters of Hebrew letters, each of which symbolizes elements that are the principle of the universe. Therefore, it is important to decipher the alphabet of the Hebrew letters.

In addition, it is influenced by the mystical interpretation to understand the Old Testament description which seemingly contradicates from Biblical reflocism. As an example, scenes of human creation appear twice in creation of the beginnings of Genesis. In literature this is considered a contradiction arising from the integration of myths of different strains into one book, but in Cabala it is interpreted that human creation actually took place twice (or more).

◆ 56:Leviathan <1>: T. Hobbes / Yui Mizuta

Top 500 reviewersIf it is troublesome to read from Chapter 13As the title suggests, the review is pretty accurate.

"Leviathan" is probably a must-read in a must-read for human beings in the social science and classical in classics, but the author's hoc reports are strangely analytical, humorous and witty, It can be said that it is.
Moreover, since the content introduced to textbooks etc. as Hobbes' political thought is concentrated from the latter half of Part 1 to the first half of Part 2, unless you are particularly interested, do not read the second two books Personally, I think.
In Iwanami Bunko version, parts 1 to 4 of the text correspond to 1st to 4th volume, respectively.

Chapters 12 to 12 of Part 1 are like contents of the philosophy at the time such as epistemology, semantics, value theory and so on. The so-called "Hobbesian" political thought and social contract theory appear in full swing in Chapter 13.
People are born equally, equal opportunities create hostilities, "struggle against each person's individual" is a natural state. However, humans also have "fear of death" and need wisdom to survive. Therefore, according to the rule for coexistence discovered by "reason" (natural law), people abandon each right and conclude a social contract.

Mostly after Chapter 14, it is devoted to the detailed discussion on the details of the "Natural Law". In this case the argument around here is quite moderate and there is no coherency, but in any case summarizing it, Hobbes, in the end, the core of natural law is "the things you do not want yourself to do with others It is said that it is that it should not do. It is quite easy to understand political thought (laugh)

Also in the detailed discussion of theology in Part 3 and Part 4, Hobbes will summarize the articles of belief into a very simple proposition "Jesus is the Christ." So, as I said earlier, it's not fun, but for a long time it's a very easy-to-read book once you keep down the point.
The point of Hobbes' 'natural law' philosophy is that if each person intends to secure the right of "self-preservation" which is the most basic natural right, that is, to establish "peace", rationally It is a point that we call the rule which only seems to be protected is called "natural law". As in Rock, it is not a rule that God specifies directly.

(Continue to Part 2)

◆ 57:On the Logic of Scientific Discovery: Carl Raimund Popper / Yoshikazu Ouchi, Translated by Morishima

Top 1000 reviewersReviewThe overview part written in is most helpful.


Views trying to capture science by an inductive method are common in the world.
But this view is wrong.
Although the principle of induction may certainly be working as a matter of human psychology, it is not related to the principle of science which is the problem here.
No matter how much a monophonic statement (individual case) is gathered, a universal assertion can not be guided from there.

However, universal assertions can be rebutted by a single statement (presence statement).
For example, the universal assertion "All crows are black" is refuted with an existence statement "a crow is white".
This is a deductive method, a reliable method.

Focusing on the asymmetry of universal assertion and existence statement, we can realize science centered on deduction.
That is the science by counterfeit test.
If the theory (universal assertion) is verified by the test and can withstand the test, the theory survives for the moment.
If it is disproved, we think and test another hypothesis (theory).
This is what the science should be.

Therefore, the theory that can not be falsified can not be called science.
Such a theory is a matter of metaphysics.
In this way, the boundary between science and nonscience is drawn.

The more rigorous the theory, the more room for disproof is, so it is a good theory as long as it can withstand the test.
On the other hand, it is not a good theory to open up the theory vaguely and narrow the scope of disproof.
Also, it is a scientific appearance as a scientist to evade with excuse when being disproved.
Free scientists are allowed to recognize that the theory is a hypothesis at all times, and should rebuttal repeatedly.

I also agree to make counterprobability one of the axes at the center of science.
It is because it is thought that it is impossible to enter the system of science because it is a system that itself can not falsify.

However, I agree with Popper's theory which opposes setting injunction as a principle, but I think that inductive guesses are effective.
Certainly, if you accept the induction as a principle, you can find as many cases as you like for a certain theory, and you can not call it science at all.
However, if it is speculated that it is not the principle, it seems to be indispensable to the science of Popper's counterprobability.

First, Popper states that science should handle only experiments that can be repeated (p. 55), but the idea of ​​this repeatable indicates that indeed inductive guesses hold.
Next, in order to discard the rebutted theory and to derive the prediction from the theory that endured the test, we must assume the identity between the past test and the current prediction, which is an inductive guess .
Also, in order to exclude such hypotheses as "presented by glue 's paradox," it is ~ till time t, it is - after time t ", it is necessary to assume uniformity is there.
So, the theory of Popper's counterproduct possibility and inductive guess are considered to be consistent.

◆ 58:Self-Presentation: Marcus Aurelius / Translated by Mikiko Kamiya

It is written by Marcus Aurerius, one of the five emperors of the Roman Empire and called "Tetsuji Emperor", and in the explanation "This book was written under quiet meditation, but to the intense humanity of the author There is only the thing written as "the book that encouraged the people who have been counted most times since ancient times, whip the crowd of people"ReviewIt explains in an easy-to-understand way.

I tried to extract some of the places I liked. I'm thinking about purchasing
It would be greatly appreciated if it became a reference for those who do.

Chapter 4 3 "People ask for places to hide in the countryside, the coast and mountains. You too
There is a habit of admiring passionately in the place I came. But all this is very customary
It is a way of thinking. Because you are always inside yourself whenever you like
It can be muffled. Indeed, in fact any place,
You will not be able to find a peaceful and quiet shelter above the soul. This
In case of, it is impossible to look at it gently
It is even more so if you bring something like that in yourself.
~ Or less "

Chapter 4 19 "About fame after death Human being heartbroken is thinking about
It is not. That is, each person who remembers him, and he himself soon
It died, then its successor died and went burning and faded away
As Torch, the memory on him was handed over from the next one, and finally
That the whole memory of the game will disappear. ~ In any case, you are now a gift of nature
Misplacing things and missing the time, obsessing what others will say in the future
You are doing. "

Chapter 8 47 "If you suffer from something external reasons, it is you who bother you
It is not yourself, but your judgment about it. ~ Abbreviation - If you
If you are suffering to not take healthy actions, so much
Instead of suffering why not take that action anymore. "But hard to overcome
An obstacle (harm) thing is lying. Then suffer, take that action
Because it is not your fault. "But live without doing it
It is not worthwhile. If so, leave your life. My own wish
With the heart that we have done with good intentions like those who die by dying and at the same time
Please leave with a mild feeling to insulate (harm) things and go away. "

◆ 59:The sociology outline (modern sociology science system): V. Pareto / Kitakawa Ryukichi, Itakura Tatsunemune, Hirota Akira translation

belowReviewIn a sense it shows the nature of this book.

While reading this book, I could not help feeling V. Pareto's imperfect imagination and the power of analytical intelligence as a scorpion. The numbered consideration is an itemized bulletin rather than a themed aggregated in one theme, and as many people say, there is overlap. However, they are duplicates that Pareto emerged in the process of pondering the object, and it is not a complaint to complain anything. It seems that it is the object that attracted the interest of Pareto by the amount captured by that subject. Try to read this book carefully, the contents can not be measured by reading it once and seeing it. Analyzing the essence of human beings appearing in political science, politics and politics and its dynamics, it is not easy to understand the dynamics of economics and society, the nature of national characteristics, inter alia the essence of civilization!

◆ 60:New academic <1> (Series: Univerzitus): Gian Batistavico / Translated by Tamio Uemura

Introduction of contents of Hosei University Publication BureauIt's concise and easy to understand.

"Because the worlds of the citizens or the nation-institutional world has been made by humans, we can find out the principles of these principles in various forms of human intelligence itself", and in the field of humanities Vico who brought Copernicus turning to.

◆ 61:The Old Testament

Creation of heaven and earth · Cain which is the first murderer, Ark · Noah's ark · Tower of Babel · Ten Commandments, etc. are very famous stories.

◆ 62:Novum Organum - New Organization: Bacon / Katsuichi Katsuichi

"A book that can be read more in contemporary confusion"The following review explains the contents quite clearly.

Bacon expressed his idea in a form of stacking short sentences called aforesism. This is due to criticizing the thought form itself that logics are accumulated.
Bacon criticized the deductive legal thought that humans can learn only what they have directly observed or experienced.
He points out a critical view not only of human logic development but also of the direct sense of man himself. This shows basic skepticism of the existence of human beings, which is specific to Britain, which also leads to later Hume.
From this idea, fanatical ideas will never be born.
Bacon has criticized not only the problem of thought form but also the trend of the time when Christian influence was strong, which does not allow a critical viewpoint.
The problem of what is known as the four prejudices that he revealed in this book, ie prejudice by each of the human nature, individuals, social life, misdeed rules of argument, is also applicable today.
I think that this book is a good book to be read in order to review the realities in front of our eyes, from the ground up again in contemporary Japan where the way of thinking and things we are approaching is reaching its limits .

◆ 63:IliadWhenOdyssey

Iliad : Homer's / translated by Matsudaira Chiaki

The following review "Battle of the godsI'm pretty sure to read it quite a bit.

It is an epic which treated Troyer War famously. Achilles, Agamemnon and other Greek men vs. Hector, Paris and other Asian forces are drawn. In other words, it is also a story telling the fight against different civilizations. Also, in the battle of the human world, gods such as Zeus, Athena, Aphrodite and others participate in human fighting and the battle of the gods

It has aspects like that. Speech and activity such as Agamemnon, Achilles, Hector, Diomennes with rich personality, argument and battle of the gods make the story even more interesting. The depiction of battle and feelings are also unique and reading is full of presence feeling.

Homer's Odyssey (Iwanami Bunko): Homer's / Chihiro Matsudaira

I can understand that it is contents which can be read very interestingly by comment of the following review.

An epic that will be made by ancient Greek poet Homer's of the 9th century BC.

The story of the Greek hero Odysseus who went on to the Trojan War lasting 10 years BC around 1200 BC. The original title means "poetry of Odysseus". The hero Odysseus, who won the long war in Troy, departs for Itagaka but suffered from the hardships of returning to Japan as he bought the anger of the sea god Poseidon. Fighting the unconventional island and fighting the Kikon, drifting the first gigant Cyclops, becoming a prisoner of witches, and eventually drifting throughout 10 years long.

On the way home, Ikuhime Aihime Penelopeia is waiting for her husband's return. My son Telemacos also grew up to be a fine youth, but our house has been occupied by people who are married against Penelopeia (thought to have become a widow), and the assets It is being debunked.

Odysseus, the hero who overcame the hardships after overcoming the hardships and returning after the 20 years (10 years of war + 10 years of wandering), with the son Telemacos, we will defeat this unsuccessful suicide.

◆ 64:Freedom Theory: John Stuart Mill / Etsuke Saito Translated

How far can interference with individual freedom be forgiven? Why should dissent opinions be respected? Why is it desirable to become "an unusual human"? Hakubi of British empirical theory which fundamentally considered individual freedom in civil society and preached the importance thereof. Now the most radical book that the modern people must read.

◆ 65:Babylonian captivity of the church

Wikipedia's "Babylonian captivity of the church"Is very well-organized and clearly understand that it was a book symbolizing important events.

In this book, Luther honored the Biblical sights to the seventh sacraments of the medieval Catholic Church.

For example, with regard to the sacrament, he asserts that ordinary believers can also participate in worship of the sacrament, while affirming that the blood and flesh of Jesus Christ will reveal themselves there, I dismissed. And denied the teaching that the sacrament was a sacrifice offered to God.

Regarding baptism as well, Luther preaches that justification will occur only when it is linked to faith protected among the baptors ("Faith justification"). However, there is also the opinion that even those who can fall afterwards will be bailed out.

Moreover, the essence of the confession was said to be in the word of promise (forgiveness) after being heard with faith. Only three of the "sacrament", "baptism", and "notice" tied to the divine rule and the promise of sacred forgiveness can be treated as sacraments. Strictly speaking, only the sacrament and baptism have "material signs defined by God". That is, bread and wine in the sacrament, water in baptism. Luther does not allow the other four sacramas ("marriage", "ordination", "confidence", "end oil") in this book.

In this discussion Luther considers the following three to be 'captive'. First of all, we have taken up wine in the Lord's Supper from the General Episciples, secondly the teachings of "St. Change", Thirdly the Roman Catholic Church is not a spiritual fellowship with Mass to Jesus, It is rather that it is preaching that it is a grace.

◆ 66:Origin of Species : Charles Darwin / Watanabe Masataka Translated

belowReviewIs touched on the contents, commentary is easy to understand, and will tell you a part of this famous book.

A new translation version of a masterpiece that changed history. Compared with the conventional translation which directly translated the original sentence which is long and difficult to understand, the real value is clearly transmitted to the reader by the ability of the translator briefly delimited the original text based on the knowledge of biological science. In the first volume, among the 14 chapters, Chapter 7 "Instinct".

At the beginning, as I said by refusing "There is no knowledge of the law that governs heredity", Darwin who did not even know the existence and structure of genes, as well as the "Mendel's law" of the same period, The process and greatness that leads the conclusion by insight alone are transmitted. Moreover, it is wonderful to have awareness of some trait from parent to child under the above conditions, existence of mutation by nature, special function of reproductive organs, importance of cumulative effect etc etc. It is clearly understood that "survival struggle" in a broad sense is also considered based on abundant cases. In addition to extrapolating these, it can be said that the composition introducing the concept of "natural selection" which forms the core of this book in Chapter 4 is skillful. It is also worthy of being intuitively approaching the core (= hereditary mechanism) of the benefits of amphibian creatures. In addition, the occurrence / penetration rate of mutation (new species) in the population, the formation process of extremely high complexity organs such as eyes, the process of selecting organs, whether the object of selection is an individual or species (Darwin is an individual level theory) It also shows that the problem was also taken into consideration.

On the other hand, Darwin's cautiousness and consideration are felt in the vicinity of Chapter 1 starting with "mutation under breeding cultivation". I began with the story of breed improvement of animals and plants, as well as easy understanding, I think that there was an intention to relieve readers' shocks in light of the impact of their own theories. In particular, since it is a theory that confronts the Creation Theory by God, it is inevitable that repulsion and repression from religious circles is inevitable and I think that it was a hard time to respond to this. I felt once again that it was a monumental work that influenced not only biological sciences but also thought and religious world, world view, social science.

◆ 67:Theory of Celestial Rotation: Copernicus / Translated by Kenichi Takahashi

Misuzu ShoboThe explanation by the contents is very easy to understand.

"A favorite reader, a newly born and recently published book, you can get stellar movements and planetary movements that have been improved by ancient observations, prepared by innovative and amazing hypotheses. In addition, a very convenient astronomical table is also available, which makes it possible to calculate exercise at any time quite easily. So buy it, read it, have fun. "(Introduction to Copernicus)
On May 24, May 24, May 1543, his principal work just printed was delivered to Ekoraus Copernicus, a member of the Cathedral Council Member of Poland, on the deadbed floor. This book entitled "Theory of Celestial Spinning" is the cosmology theory = the solar-centered theory (the theory of the theory) that conflicts directly from the Aristotle-Ptolemy's Earth-centered theory (Forest Theory) which was dominant throughout the ancient and medieval period, It was a trigger to a historical incident called "scientific revolution", a book of revolution telling the beginning of modern times.

◆ 68:The Theory of War : Carl von Clausewitz / Shimizu Takayoshi Translating

Review by Top Reviewers Hall of Fame reviewers "One of historical copyrighted works"Accurately represents the content.

"The entire warfare assumes human weaknesses, we will pay attention to this weakness." "Only those who make the right policy can surprise them." It is true that there are many expressions with hardships and implications like a speech by former Federal Reserve Chairman Grein Spun. It is not a book that anyone can read on. However, the explanation is logistic as cold, hence it is only getting longer and worse. Therefore, if you get accustomed to that point, you feel even easier to understand.

Although it is a masterpiece that has been loved by the military officials of the world for a long time, frankly speaking, to speak out in line with the common sense of the era in which weapons of mass destruction and high-tech weapons make a difference, it is already old.

On the other hand, the point that "boldness can be demonstrated easily if rational purpose is added" is not limited only to war, but rather may be a reference for business people rather than business people. Indeed, "knowledge necessary for senior soldiers can only be acquired through special talent consideration, that is, research and consideration" "criticism is to apply theoretical truth to actual case" , Or the definition and position and significance of strategy and tactics are not limited to military activities.

Although it is not a simple book, it is a work that you want to correct attitude from time to time while reading it.

◆ 69:An overview of Pyronism philosophy: Sextos Empiricos / Yuhei Kanayama, translated by Mariko Kanayama

"Sextus Empeericos "An overview of Pyrrhenist philosophy" - Reading itinerant of King King - Yahoo! ブ ロ グ"The explanation of" About this book "shows well the character of this book.

This book is a book showing the outline of few Pyrronisms written by Pyrrhonists themselves Sextus Emperiricus, which is a very valuable material. Also, since this book has a composition of refusing other philosophical groups, it is also a valuable document in a dual sense because it can also know the outline of other philosophical groups at the time.

This book was translated and translated into Latin in Europe in the 16th century, it became an unusual best seller at that time (let alone typography is one of the three major inventions of the Renaissance). It can be seen clearly that this book has greatly influenced modern philosophy since the 17th century centered on epistemology.

◆ 70:Plutarchus Heroes' Translation (Chiku Gakuin Bunko): Plutarusu / Translated by Kutaro Murakawa

Delphi 's supreme priest Plutarchus was "the last Greeks" who enjoyed the peace of Rome while missing the glory of their home country. This book is a definitive edition that readily depicts Greek and Roman heroes and readily re-edited classic historical documents widely read by future generations.

◆ 71:Panse: Pascal / Yoichi Maeda, Yasuki Yuki

belowReviewIt is quite well descriptive of the contents, you can see how famous the book is.

Too famous phrase "human is a thinking reed", by knowing the before and after, the impression
Endlessly amplify. Let's listen to Pascal's words often.
"Man is nothing more than a single reed, that reed is the weakest in nature,
It is a thinking reed. ...... Whether the universe crushes humans, humans are still more than men who kill themselves
It will continue to be noble. Because human beings die for themselves, and the universe
Because I know that it will prevail over humans. The universe knows nothing. "

That's not all the reading. That argument of "Pascal's bet" is also included in this text
It is expanded. Insight that nature is nothing other than human nature is brilliant. Implicitly
If you turn over the page, too obvious, too sharp af- ference is accused somewhere.

Thinking of death Memento mori.
The word "crazy and genius is papers" is right for Pascal. While pouring the anguish of fresh blood,
Life that broke through me through knowledge until being ridiculous, sings superiority to the universe, exactly
With that knowledge.
An impressive masterpiece in which such anguish until clogging of such a breast, loneliness, fleeting hope was condensed.

◆ 72:Psychophysics (1): G. W. F. Hegel / Kashiyama's translation

Regarding the content, review the following "Consciousness walking in the way of despairIt shows briefly.

In the first volume, Introduction, Introduction, A - Consciousness, B - Self Consciousness, C - Reason is included.
While consciousness goes through "the way of despair", in the face of denial,
It is delicately described how appearing to develop into true intellect.

◆ 73:Logic Philosophy Discussion: Wittgenstein / Translated by Shigeki Noya

"What can be spoken can be clearly spoken, and for people that can not be discussed, people must be silent." - This is the only philosophical book published by Wittgenstein (1889-1951) before life is there. Its systematicly numbered "proposition", its extremely condensed style and ingenious content is full of unknown charm and "danger".

◆ 74:Tenpu history Masashi Hen: John Bunyan / Translated by Toshio Iketani

A masterpiece of 17th century Puritan literature. A masterpiece that is said to be "well read following the Bible". A complete translation of the "Tenpu kagaku shogun" which the author's faith and spirituality of John Bunyan (1628-1688) gave birth. While daring in the burden of your sins, the appearance of those who travel for seeking salvation and eternal life will have no choice but to empathize with the soul of contemporary people.

What kind of story is Wikipedia's "Celestial courseIt is written in.

A man named Christian who lived in "City of Destruction" (a "ruined town") passed through various difficulties such as death fight with "the city of vanity" and the destroyer Apollo, "a capital of heaven It is in the form of a record of the journey to reaching.

◆ 75:Pragmatism: W. James / translated by Masuda Keizaburo

The review "American philosophy" touches on the contents as follows.

Author William James (1842-1910) is one of America's leading philosophers. The title "pragmatism" is a meaning of "pragmatism" when literally translated, but as the very name suggests, from the past Western philosophy, it is a feeling that we gathered useful things together. As we know well, it is fundamental to classify philosophical history as rationalism and empiricism as dualistic, but as the author relies on "principle" as rationalism, wisdom It is extreme to lean towards one of these dualisms by raising empirical theory, sensory theory, materialism, etc. as the basis of the idealism and idealism and the other based on the "fact". In other words, they are trying to pick up the good points of both sides. At the bottom of it, human nature is hybrid and contradictory, and intuition which seems to be incompatible with "principle" and "fact" in the place of pragmatic life is probably working. However, to this philosophy daringly speaking of "dualism", it is undeniable that there is a place to honor the abstraction and to have a point of concrete. It is a fact that it feels insufficient in the direction that seeks abstract deep thinking of thought.
Even so, it is a philosophy like America.

◆ 76:Pleasant God: Erasmus / Kazuo Watanabe, translated by Norimiya

ContentsWikipediaIt is detailed.

A goddess of goddess Moriae (Moriae) opens a big public speech in front of the audience and brutally caricatures human idiosyncracies and unfolding folly with biblical legends, bold quotations from the classics of Greek / Roman, phrases spread out horizontally and sideways It is. The goddess of idiot is thoroughly hanging down the authority such as the royal aristocracy, clergy, theologian, grammar scholar, philosopher and others with a mild toneful mouth, the power of indignity is working under the root of human acts, human beings If you are stupid, you will be happy.

The name of Melia Moria is a word meaning "foolish" "madness" in Greek, which is reminiscent of Morus, the Latin name of More. This book is dedicated to Thomas Mor.

Please note that somehow "Uncyclopedia,"Praise the folly godThe meaning of the item is also quite helpful.

◆ 77:New Principle Theory: Niccolo Machiavelli / Ikeda Ritsu Translating

"Why do not you touch the wisdom treated as a prohibition by the Catholic Church?Review by top 10 reviewers is easy to understand.

"If the majority of people in the world are not deprived of property or honor they will live quite satisfactorily." "In general, humans judge rather than touch the hands only with their eyes "Man can not leave from it, leaning to the nature that was born with it."

It is a historical masterpiece that was written about 500 years ago, bought the anger of the Catholic Church, treated as a temporary prohibition, finally being read straightforward in the 19th century. It is unreasonable. "Because destiny is a goddess, if you try to conquer her, you need to defeat it, you need to thrust away." "Desire for territory is a very natural and natural desire" and it is written in plain.

Some parts can not be easily applied to social descriptions due to changes in the times. However, if you look closely, it will be noticed again that the essence of human beings has not changed at all even when the times change.

Meanwhile, the Machiavellian monarchy is quite active. We strongly admonished the attitude of not choosing, matching himself with the changing circumstances, encouraging the preparation as "all major projects have been accomplished only by the hand of the person who is stingy", war war Take it, give it a go.

Although there are many unpleasant quotes, some kind of painful reading feeling also remains is that it clearly points out the essence of human beings and points out the stupidity of the world and others, but does not look down on it and is positive It is a point where the intention of targeting energy is blurred. Beyond the times it is worth reading.

I am grateful that commentary and translations are polite, I do not take places in book size and less than 1,000 yen.

◆ 78:Principia - Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy: Isaac Newton / Nakano Monkey Translation

Wikipedia's "Mathematical Principles of Natural PhilosophyThe outline of the content is written in.

The original is written in Latin. All three volumes, titles and main points of each volume are as follows.

Volume 1 About motion of object
Motion law of objects in vacuum
Volume 2 On the motion of objects
Motion law of objects in resistant media
Volume 3 About the world system
It deals with the mathematical mechanism of the actual universe, whether it is an object on the earth, a planet around the sun, a comet, its position can be explained unified by the mathematical law of universal gravitation As shown in FIG.

As a mathematical tool throughout the whole we are using Euclid's "principle" in principle. Furthermore, the form of expansion also follows "original theory" and adopts the public theoretic form. It is a method of proceeding in a way that shows the axiom at the beginning and prove it using its axioms.

At the time, he was trying to explain using Euclidean geometry as much as possible without using the differentiation / integration which research was beginning to advance, so it is a very large writings. It is speculated that it was fighting with Prussia's Gottfried · Wilhelm · Leibnitz and others (differential hours) and integration etc. with their contents (absolute time) and notation etc. Newton and Leibniz frequently had fundamentally different views in terms of how to catch time and how to catch the space, and they were intensely conflicting (see the space article as well). However, it is not that there is no place using algebraic analysis, although it is a part.

◆ 79:Psychological type: Jung / Toshio Kawai, translated by Yoshimura Hirozu

"Tomo Kazunori Blog (philosophy · pedagogy introduction · commentary): Jung 'psychological type'"Is a fairly easy-to-understand entry that explains the details of" psychological type "in detail.

By the way, the "psychological type" depicted in this book is not a type of so-called "unconscious" level, it is a type of consciousness level to the last.

Needless to say, Jung is famous as a person advocating "collective unconscious".

People have "collective unconscious" shared from ancient times at the unconscious level. Jung argues. Especially in late students, Jung will devote into exploring such an unconscious world, but research on "consciousness" level is also important for Jung, an essential element for mutual understanding among people.

In this book, you can enjoy Jung's excellent thinking which goes back and forth between the world of consciousness and the unconscious world in good balance.

◆ 80:Mao Zedong language translation: Mao Saigon / Takeuchi real translation

First of all, there is a page written with horizontal writing "All the world proletarians unite!" What kind of content is "Mao chief words - WikipediaThe "table of contents" of "is very easy to understand.

1. Communist Party
2. Class and class struggle
3. Socialism and Communism
4. Handle inconsistencies inside the people correctly
5. War and Peace
6. Imperialism and all rebel groups are papier tigers
7. Bravely struggle, to victoriously win
8. People's War
9. People's Army
10. Guiding the Party Committee
11. Mass route
12. Political work
13. Military relations
14. Civilian Relations
15. The Three Major Democrats
16. Education and training
17. Serve the people
18. Patriotism and internationalism
19. Revolutionary Heroism
20. Founded country
21. Self-reliance, struggle hard
22. Thought method and method of construction
23. Research Study
24. False ideas
25. Unity
26. Discipline
27. Criticism and self-criticism
28. Communist Party
29. Executive
30. Youth
31. Ladies
32. Culture · Art
33. Learning

◆ 81:The Quran

It is a Muslim scripture covering all 114 chapters, chapter 1 "Open end (Quran)The content of "is very famous.

The Arabic language of the original language and its translation are as follows.

1: 1 بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Bismillāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīm
The best mercy under the name of God.

1: 2 الحمد لله رب العالمين

Al amamdu lillāhi rabbi l -'ālamīn
All thanks god Allah alone of the world.

1: 3 الرحمن الرحيم

Ar raḥmāni r-raḥīm
Allah has the best mercy,

1: 4 مالك ي وم الدين

Māliki yawmi d-dīn
He is the ruler of the Last Judgment Day.

1: 5 إياك نعبد وإياك نستعين

Iyyāka na'budu wa iyyāka nasta'īn
We worship only you and seek help only to you.

1: 6 اهدنا الصراط المستقيم

Ihdinā ṣ-ṣirāṭ al-mustaqīm
Bring us all to the right way.

1: 7 صراط الذين أنعمت عليهم غير المغضوب عليهم ولا الضالين

Ṣirāṭ al-la ḏīna an'amta 'alayhim 명ayril maġḍūbi' alayhim walāḍ ḍā elīn
Not in the one who gave you anger or the one who lost sight of your own path but on the way of those who gave you grace.

♦ 82:New translation Reflections on the French Revolution - "Father of conservatism" thus speaks: Edmund Burke / Translated by Kenji Sato

Wikipedia's "Reflections on the French RevolutionThe following summary, which is written in "Brief Summary" shows the content.

In the latter half we are predicting the circumstances that the revolution will follow, and in the end it says, "Before seeing the final disappearance, France must pass through the incarnation that should be purified by fire and blood" There.

◆ 83:Relativity theory: A. Einstein / Ryu Uchiyama translation

belowReviewIt crys out only with its contents It explains well about its surroundings and prerequisite knowledge and explains it.

A paper that is only 24 pages has been unknowingly changed the world. I broke down the fixed human spatiotemporalism. It has been since the beginning of the history of mankind, the physical world view is quite different before and after Einstein. In 1905, a conservative paper entitled "Electrical Mechanics of Moving Objects" was published in "Annalen der Physics" by a 26 year old young man. Since Galilei, no, before Galilei, human beings were staring at the sky with a sense of common sense in the everyday sense. Ptolemy would have read the stars as a human soul fairly far away, thinking that the sky is full of spirits. But Aristarchus, a natural philosopher, applied the geometric theorem to derive the size of the earth surprisingly accurately at ancient times. In ancient times only Aristarchus believed that the shining star was a star that burned by something like our sun. At least in ancient Greece, only this cool man is showing the understanding of the common direction with the modern day, looking at the sky. However, he did not have developed mathematical tools nor precise measurement techniques. The medieval Christian worldview was discharged exhaustively with the heritage of the natural philosophy of Greece, and even in modern times, stars and the universe were regarded as symbol of the nation and the destiny of human beings. In fact, Johannes Kepler was an astrologer and Isaac Newton was a further mystic. It seems that only Galilei was a relatively common senseist and an experimenter.

For a long time, this world has been thought of as a commonsense world in which our everyday feeling is adapted. Speed ​​can be overlapped anywhere. This is a very ordinary feeling of human beings. Because the natural environment and extent to which we survive naturally prove that. Will the fish that live in the water be conscious of water? . In the era of horse or SL, the relative speed of the moving object speed never becomes a problem in daily life. The Danish astronomer Römer did the measurement of the light velocity that Galilei had failed and measured the speed of light that was thought to be infinite at that time using Jupiter's satellite's meal. His numerical figures are surprisingly good choices as approximate values. Just like Aristarchus, Römer seems to have been a really smart man. In this way, a long time passed and special relativity comes out. Preparation for preparation comes in place. And a young Einstein will emerge. Special relativity leaves from two principles.

(1) assumes that the relative of exercise, that is, in the universe, we were traveling at a speed of 300 km / h in a certain direction, the person watching it is moving away from us at 300 km / h Even if it is said that it is not a mistake, this principle will be convinced by everyone on the word, but at the time of the announcement there were few people who can understand the physical meaning accurately.
(2) is to make light speed the limit of speed. It was a puzzled situation that I did not understand what the medium that conveyed the light at that time was. There, a virtual entity called ether was invented as a virtual medium transmitting light. Michelson made a successful experiment by detecting this virtual entity. The earth rotates at a speed of 1660 km / h. At this speed and at a speed perpendicular to the axis of rotation, we thought that the speed of light will differ under the substance called ether. If we could detect even a slight difference, special relativity would not have come out. However, the speed difference was not detected any number of times. There is no ether. Michelson could not but declare it like this. Special relativity is a consequence derived from these two premises.
It is "delay in time under light velocity" "increase in mass" "coupled equation of matter and energy".
Prior to Einstein, Dutch physicist Hendrik Lorenz had mathematically reached relativity by Lorentz transformation, Poincaré and British Fizalerald came to the entrance of special relativity. It is said that if Einstein's paper is delayed, they themselves would have created special relativity. Special relativity can be understood mathematically if the operation of quadratic equation can be done. However, physically, the experimental background was indispensable to go there.

◆ 84:State : Plato / translated by Fujisawa Oka

"Extreme parade on paradeA review nicely conveys the atmosphere.

What is common prejudice against classics is that "Classics, although it may have been a groundbreaking claim at the time of publication, nowadays it is written that commonsense is stale." By reading this book you will see how wrong such belief is.

This book is an extreme parade on parade from the beginning to the end. "Only philosophers (scientists) have the power to see the truth, so the state should be governed by philosophers (scientists)," or "To make a baby like everyone like a family member, It should be evaluated from the viewpoint of the influence that fiction worth exclusively on society, such as detaching from parents and not knowing who is a child ", so it should be evaluated from the viewpoint of the influence of fiction on society so much, so harmful fiction to young people should be crack down thoroughly Anyway, extreme assertions continue. If someone writes the same claim on my blog now, it is all about flames. It is written about 2400 years ago, but its controversy still remains the same at that time. That is why it is a classic.

◆ 85:Path to Slavery Hayeku Complete Works I - Separate volume 【New version】: F. A. Hayek / Nishiyama Chiaki Translate

The main work of Hayek who continued criticism, slander, slander without reading without reading. Classic of Neoliberalism. A problematic work that broke the big controversy by criticizing Keynesian policy in the UK under the Second World War as Keynes policy is a way to fascism (totalitarian) like Nazism, Stalinism, socialism. It is said that thought that defends freedom, market, has been read over the times, affecting Thatcher, Reagan, and Koizumi structural reform.

◆ 86:Decision Version Second Sex <1> Facts and Myths: Simone de Beauvoire / Takako Inoue, Translated Nobuko Kimura

Top 100 reviewers and the following in the Hall of Fame reviewsersReviewIt is easy to understand.

The author Simoneu de Bo Bois is a person who was a married wife of JP Sartre. I was a high school boy at a boys' school. When I was a high school student, I read this book and received a lot of shock. Women's theory starting with the descent of "A person is not born to a woman, becomes a woman", and women are changing the original self to become an image of a woman a man has It was the best surprise I saw from a man 's servant.

Well, I wonder if the feeling does not change much with the man with the original woman
While holding unknown feelings now they are parents of boys and girls. When you become a parent and watch your daughter it is certainly felt that your alter ego is striving to be a woman, as the Booboir says.

Rather it may be a book that men should read.

◆ 87:Structure of scientific revolution: Thomas Kuhn / translated by Nakayama Shigeru

What is progress in science? How will transformation of the worldview occur?
With this "paradigm" concept as a weapon, this book sharply analyzes the unknown theme "scientific revolution"
Give a new perspective to the history of science from Copernicus to Bohr.
Paradigm is a work that is widely accepted by people,
It gives scientists a model of how to ask nature and how to answer for a certain period of time.
It destroys this paradigm as a framework of thinking,
Introducing different perspectives on nature is the only revolution,
The author says.
It is a book of problems that have received great reaction as psychology and behavioral science of scientific sociology and scientists' group.

◆ 88:Theological Theology 5th Part 1 65-74 Problem: Thomas · Aquinas / Saburo Takada, Translated by Yamamoto Kiyoshi

What kind of books are written in Wikipedia's commentary "Theological TheologyIt is easy to understand.

The characteristic of "theology thesis" is organically categorized and organized systematically, contents which were separately described in "proposition collection" (Sentimentier) or "annotation" (commentorium) which was used in theology at the time I am in the place to fix it. In other words, the biblical words and the words of the theologian and the theologian have been drawn out in an easy-to-understand manner. It also includes the results of debate and interpretation that was actively carried out at schools and universities attached to the medieval church of the Bishop's Cathedral.

◆ 89:Attempt of Generative Grammar: Nome · Chomsky / Naoki Fukui, Translated by Mihoko Tsujiko

belowReviewIt quotes the content, it is easy to understand what type of book it is.

This book is Chomsky's interview collection.
Chomsky as a political activist is hardly touched directly, and the topic is mainly concerning grammar generation.
Below are the impressions by Chomsky's words.

"Because I am being overtaken by various activities ..., interaction with any other (academic) field is sparse" (page 56)

"We are just going in the wrong direction and it may come to surface sooner or later" (p. 100)

"My own research (in the field of language history) has been severely distorted to such a degree as to be truly unbelievable" (p. 115)

"There is always only a handful of people in this field always interested in the kind of research I'm doing" (page 125)

"In the United States ... Even if there is a possibility of becoming a constructive and creative research, ... the sprout has been picked up in this field" (p. 131)

"Because I do not know well as any one that I do not study other languages ​​than English" (page 204)

"The grammar actually has to exist, that is, there must be something in the brain that corresponds to grammar" (p. 254)

"Brain science ... At this stage the contents of general theory is poor ... no one knows even if brain science is seeing the right thing" (p. 367)

Even such prominent scholars are suffering from the fact that their theories are misunderstood and that they are minorities.
Many surprising claims were seen, including saying that creative research is hard to do in the United States.
Even if I do not know well what generation grammar is going on, it is certain that I felt familiar with Chomsky, to speak frankly.

◆ 90:Translations of Lao Tzu - Book Books "Lao Tzukoku": Lao Tzu / Translated by Koike Koike

What is written about is Wikipedia'sLao TzuIt is detailed.

Hitoshi Yui Hitoshi (Hitoshi appears for the first time when the great "road" is obsolete.)
Wisdom comes out great lies (There is great deceit when wisdom is taken away.)
Six parent inquisitive religion (filial piety and compassion are exempted only when the father, mother, uncle, uncle, aunt, aunt's six parents are bad).
Nation conflict Yoda (as the state is confused (infidelity raging in the opinion of the emperor), Sadami who frankly says the emperor will be recognized frankly only) (Chaplain 18)

"A general with good war is not affected by emotion, a general is able to ensure the best victory all the time, a man who is skilled in using people does not do war itself, a humble posture that humorously humorously This is a "discontent virtue" which does not contest anything, it is a trick using people's power, a policy consideration of the heavenly is a political philosophy of the saint named Kimiko (good fighter angry victims enemy chief善 善 善 司 之 之 是 不 之

"Knowing things you do not know is progress and it is a wonderful thing. In contrast, it is vanity that knowing it without knowing anything is vanity, derived from the pathology of the spirit Masayoshi Nori knowledge of disease) "(Chapter 73)

◆ 91:Zarathostra Kokoro Nakagaki: Nietzsche / Translated Michio Takeyama

Persian grandfather Zarathostra cried out as "God is dead" again, reverted to humans, denied religious pessimism, praised the ground in front of the crowd and affirmed the life, "Humans conquered To live, to live, to live "to preach. August 1881 This book which suddenly expresses the inspiration of "Eternal return" in an internal process where Zarathostra rises to the superhuman was the last point of Nietzsche and became the beginning of existentialism.

◆ 92:The theory of humanity principle: George Berkley / Otsuki Haruhiko translation

Amazon's "Human principle theory (Iwanami Bunko)The followingReviewIt is quite easy to understand.

The second author of British experience theory trio, the main work of George Barkly.

Attacking the thesis of "existence is perceived (Esse Perkipi)", thoroughly attack existing irrespective of us, behind perception To go.

Is it possible that the desk in front of you is independent of our perception?

"Even if no one is looking at, this desk will exist even if there is no one in this room"

The person who says like this may imagine (perceive!) The scene that there is a desk in a room where no one is present.

Whatever you imagine, whatever the situation you think, what is it other than "I'm perceiving" and "appears to me"? There is no world behind the door! Is it?

Barkly's argument is simple, sincere, very easy to read. I feel somewhat old in the translated sentence, but I am thankful for the politeness of the notes I am surpassing.

◆ 93:Human Nature's Theory About Intelligence: David Hume / Kiso Favorite Translation

For the contents of this philosophical book Wikipedia "Human Nature"Explains in detail.

Hume points out that human perception is divided into impressions and ideas, the impression includes powerful stimuli such as feelings, senses, emotions, and the idea is nothing but an image without movement of emotions. Ideas and impressions are closely related, simple ideas are derived from simple impressions, impressions are the foundation for creating ideas. The impression can also be classified into an impression of sense and an impression of reflection, but the former appears in human psychology from the cause of the road, but the latter is expressed by idea. Therefore, Humu argues that what impressions first stimulate a sensation and make people perceive pleasure, etc. and keep it in mind even after the impression disappears. By this, the idea makes it possible to make the impression reproducible, it is possible to memorize known events and imagine unknown events. Imagination brings about a complex work of the mind, and it functions in accordance with the laws of three ideas of similarity, approach, and causation. This law is the law of idea, three concepts of relationship, aspect and entity are brought to human as a compound idea according to this law.

◆ 94:Theory of Heat (Theory of Theory): James Clark Maxwell

"The Theory of Theory | Natural Science (1) Classical / EnlightenmentAccording to ", it is said to be the contents as follows.

The "Theory of Theory" is about the heat that was being elucidated in a textbook way
It is supposed to be written.

An overview and a part are translated.
According to the summary being introduced
"Thermometer principle" "Measurement of heat quantity" "Mechanics principle" "Basics of thermodynamics"
"Experimental facts on heat" "Interpretation of experimental facts"
It is "applied".

◆ 95:Referee: Kafka / Tsuji Sai translation

As for K, it can only be described as a very ordinary salaried worker. Why was it taken over by the trial, what trial it is He can not understand at all. And gradually he will be forced into a daunting struggle. An uneasy anxiety that covers the whole.

More details are as followsReviewIs touched.

Joseph · K will be killed at the end. But I felt that the chapter did not connect with others. If so, it can be thought that the intention of Kafka is expressed more frequently in the previous section than in the number of written pages. According to the theory that novels are as important as any one line, we try not to get caught in the conclusion section.
K depended his lawyer for advice by his uncle. However, it is disgusted by a lawyer who does not do anything with his mouth, and decides to refuse. Then he went to the lawyer and offered that he would no longer need defense. There was a subserviceous merchant block. And K alone will try to fight lawsuit. I thought that this climax is around here.
(The reading is abstract and apart from the original sentence whether this novel is foreseeing a dreamy story, a dark future, or drawing an absurdity)
After that, a story about the famous "Gate of the Law" comes out. I have a scary gates and threaten men halfway so I can not let them inside. That received K as a story to look back on her posture. It may be a landscape in the heart of a man. After all, did not a man get into dare? While continuing dialogue with the gatekeeper, was not he thinking about his way of going?
As a whole novel, it seems like a story where individuals (ordinary people) pursue something on their own. K acts without concern while paying attention to the surroundings. There is nothing to achieve by 100% what everyone thinks. The reason K was killed at the end is to guess that Kafka had an experience (spiritually) similar to reality, and that part was written fairly (though it may be my memory mistake The ending section was written at the very beginning with the opening part).

◆ 96:Originally translated Upanishad: Hiroshi Iwamoto

Upanishad is a generic term for a group of theology books and religious philosophy books written in Sanskrit. These books, which form the basis of Indian thought, were established on the tradition of Vedas' myths and ceremonies, but they differed from the Brahmin's festival universalism until then, He pursued a philosophy of pursuing truth exploration and preaching the unity of the universe as one unit. This book contains an extract of the main story from the old Uppanishad dating back to the 4th - 8th century BC. There is a philosophical philosophical philosophy of "Sasagi Kazuyoshi" which identifies the two principles of Brahman and Artman and prefers the fundamental principle of Absolute Fuji on top of it, and religion of the circulation, work, commentary which became the soil of Buddhism etc. Thought is embossed.

◆ 97:Advocacy of women's rights - with criticism of political and moral issues: Mary Wurston Craft / Shirai Riko

Wikipedia "Protection of women's rights"The content explanation is written in a concise and easy-to-understand manner.

Wurston Craft argues that the identity of affection that men have directed toward women is low in the past, which is because men have prevented the intellectual improvement of women. Rousseau said that the weakness of a woman who relied on men to live their lives depends on men while taking up the case of the favorite Thereses, noting that it only creates a short-term attachment on the spot. That is why Wurston Craft thought that intelligence is necessary to improve intelligently lower love affair that continues like this animal desire. She insists on the significance that men and women will help each other and the significance of women liberating women as corrupting men if men prevent women's intellectual development. What is needed to release women is education, and Wurston Craft is given to women to enumerate the appropriate knowledge and virtues, seeking understanding of the contents of traditional national education and institutional reform There.

◆ 98:War and Peace <1>: Tolstoy / Translated by Shuichiro Kudo

belowReviewIt shows well the contents of this famous work.

Trying to interpret the turbulent Europe of the beginning of the 18th century centered on the historical fact of Napoleon's entry into Moscow in 1812 is not this book? It seems to me that why the Europeans who are the same Christians were in the war of washing blood with blood, that Tolstoy's problem consciousness is starting to write.

In this book, fragments of human observation shining glittering are all evenly exhausted and scattered evenly. Compared to that, I think that there are many cases where a story is established with a single piece as a motif, while modern novels (understanding generalization too much). The method of writing a story may be changing, perhaps there is a part overlapping with the grammar of a movie that has to put something intuitive message in two hours. It was made me think that the big difference between a work commonly referred to as a major work and a modern novel is in such a place.

As a historical novel is also a wonderful content, more than that, meaning that it has reached a complex human psychology, such as changes in human priority in the time of peace and wartime, extreme conditions, and the duality of each person 's good and evil So this novel has acquired universality. Depending on the circumstances, we will draw out the strengths and weaknesses of individuals who are both good and bad, strong and weak. And Tolstoy will pay attention to the passion that does not intervene in the people (passion) in the people, and will appreciate its overwhelming power more than anything else.

Throughout the story, Tolstoy criticizes the viewpoint of historians seeing the flow of history to individuals' passion as Napoleon, and draws the speed with which the war that started was rolling with its vitality and power in its desired direction. It will be unique to the novelist Tolstoy, a rare artist who gazes at the two opposing forces of "inevitable" and "freedom" and can overlook the history and human activities that are established on the balance. It is long as 4 volumes, but it is not hard to read.

◆ 99:Wealth of Nations <1>: Adam Smith / Hiroshi Mizuta, Tadashihe Sugiyama

"Invisible hand"It is a famous book written about the following contents.

This book, published by the father Smith Smith of economics in 1776, is the earliest systematic description of economics through theory, policy and history, an immortal masterpiece called classical in classics. This book, which insisted on a scheduled harmonious free laissement policy by the so-called "invisible hand", is a scientific analysis of its modern civil society in its substance, every later theory originates here. New translation. (4 books in total)

◆ 100:World as a Will and Representation <1>: Shopenhauer / Translated by Nishio Miki

"I peeped into the abyss of the world that I should not missReview is a good review in every sense.

I have read this philosophy long ago already, but I experienced thrill and excitement that I can never forget.

Among all four volumes, the first volume is the idea that followed the teachings of Sachinobu that the outside world can be known by senses and ideas as the theme of "the world is my representation", but to the next volume and beyond It is not creative that it is taken up in the degree of the stone of a stone.

From the 2nd volume to demonstrate its capabilities.
From here, the identity of 'Will' which is one of the keywords is exposed under white sun.
· · · When I read this volume (and Volume 4), I fell into the illusion that I knew the secret of this world which I should never see and hear while I was alive, I was stunned by the goose bumps Oops.
An overview (including spoiler)
· · · All this natural phenomenon, and the motive power to move things thoroughly and change them, from stone pellets to animals and plants and humans, is this "will". Speaking of human beings, not only breathing and heartbeat, but also appetite, growth, sexual impulses, desire to succeed or desire to live, desire for money and death · · · The driving force to urge these is also the same "will" If there. Moreover, as this blind intention, I am enthusiastic about the survival of the seed but I am indifferent to the survival and dignity of individuals, urge innumerable individuals to constant life and death and encourage metabolism of species. That is the sexual impulse that becomes the essence, which is the fact that this is the intention of making the strongest child (although not the whole life) and also the desire in desire.
On the other hand, as a person with higher consciousness than other organisms, the more they are touched by this uncontrollable will, the more they will taste disillusionment such as broken heart, loss of jobs and bankruptcy, and the suffering will increase (on the contrary There are no stones or plants suffering, these are mere faithful and pure servants of will)

In this way, the flock of swimming fish swarming in the ocean, in principle, together with the flock of people going to the company with each other compulsive shoe sounds in the concourse of the station every morning? Myself who is also one of them is just a puppet that is covered with stress ... After all, I have never thought seriously, such as why he or she is working for a while despite of having a bad day. I mean that the driving force that urges it even in inertia is lurking behind ...

in Note,   Pick Up, Posted by logq_fa