Twenty questions that may be solved by science, such as the other side of the black hole
ByNASA's Marshall Space Flight Center
Due to the development of science and technology, events that were previously unknown were also elucidated one by one, but there are still many mysteries in the world and the universe. It has not yet been elucidated, but it summarizes the mystery that it may be clarified soon "Big Questions in ScienceFrom 20 books on scienceThe GuardianIt is open to the public.
The 20 big questions in science | Science | The Observer
◆ 01: What is the universe made of?
5% of the universe is found to be an atom, but we have not yet understood what the remaining 95% is. After 80 years of research, what I learned was "Dark matter(Dark matter) andDark energyIt constitutes 95% of the universe. " Dark matter was discovered in 1933, and with galaxiesClusters of galaxiesDark energy is a substance that has been found in 1988, spreading the universe at a tremendous rate.
◆ 02: Origin of life
Organic matter melted into the sea four billion years agoPrimitive soupAt the innersomethingAs a result of the occurrence, several chemical substances were combined, and the first biomolecules that can replicate themselves were born. It is said that human beings were born by the evolution of these biomolecules, but it has not yet been clarified how the chemical substance that existed in the early planet Earth produced biomolecules. Be a chemistStanley MillerIt has been 50 years since the original soup theory was developed, but the origin of life still remains a mystery.
◆ 03: Do you have an alien?
An astronomer is "a place where life could be born in moisture" in the solar systemEuropaWe are searching for planets that are many years away from Mars and Mars. In 1977, signals that may have been emitted from extraterrestrial life entitiesWow! SignalI intercepted, but it is unknown what it was. It is now possible to analyze the atmosphere to discriminate planets containing oxygen and moisture and it may prove that humans are not the only intellectual living organisms in the coming decades in the coming years .
◆ 04: Human definition
I do not know just by looking at DNA, but it is all human genetic informationHuman genomeIt is 99% identical to that of chimpanzee, which is 50% identical to that of banana. However, humans have bigger brains than most animals, three times their gorillas in their brainNerve cellIt is stuffed that it is packed. "Language use", "Use of tools", "Recognizing myself in the mirror as yourself", which were the judgment materials that used to distinguish between humans and animals, have been confirmed in other animals.
◆ 05: What is consciousness?
Consciousness has been found to be an event that "a part of the brain does not arise by working, but multiple parts of the brain are connected by a network" event, but what is clear about the whole thing is I do not know.
◆ 06: Principle of dreams
Human beings are sleeping about one-third of their life. As for sleeping dreams, many scholars have been developing opinion, for example, psychoanalyst and psychiatristSigmund Freud"A dream expresses impossible hope expressed", and in addition there are scholars who say that "a dream is a sudden movement of a sleeping brain". On the other hand, according to animal experiments, it seems that dreams may be related to memory, learning, and feelings.
◆ 07: Why are there "things"?
Materials constituting the human body have the same mass, but the charge of the constituent particles and the like have completely opposite propertiesAntimatterWhen two substances come in contact with each other,Pair annihilationAnd mass is released as energy. Substance and antimatter are in conflictbig bang, The two substances disappear and the theory that a space with a lot of energy was born is the most powerful theory that creates the very first "thing", the universe.
◆ 08: The existence of other universe
The universe is very unstable, and it is possible that human beings will not be able to survive only with a little change in what constitutes. In solving this "fine tuning" problem, physicists admit the existence of other universeMulti-dimensional cosmologyIt seems to be developing. According to physicists, if the universe exists for every combination of configurations, you can explain why the universe is unstable.
◆ 09: How to treat carbon dioxide
The atmosphere of the earth is being filled with carbon dioxide generated by human burning fossil fuels more and more. As a result, environmental problems such as global warming are occurring, so somehow it is considered a way to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. As a method, there is a thing called "to burying in an old oil field or the seafloor", but the danger is not known at all.
◆ 10: How to get more energy from the sun
Currently there is only solar power as a way to get energy from the sun. However, scientists are currently studying how to use sunlight to decompose water into oxygen and hydrogen and produce pollution-free fuels.
◆ 11: Mystery of prime numbers
Internet shopping is done safelyPublic key cryptographyThanks to the prime that makes up, but the prime has not been elucidated the mystery "Riemann expectationThere is, and it is one of unresolved problems on mathematics.
◆ 12: How to get rid of bacteria
Antibiotics are substances that destroy bacteria and are considered as one of the miracles of modern medicine, but have the power to resist antibioticsResistant bacteriaThere are 25,000 deaths every year in Europe by Europe, and the perfect way to get rid of bacteria has not been found yet.
◆ 13: Is it possible to keep the computer running at an increased speed?
Computers installed on smartphones and tablets have higher computing power than what was loaded when Apollo 11 landed on the moon in 1969. However, there is a limit to the computing power, and in order to raise the speed furtherQuantum computerWe need to use next generation computers such as.
◆ 14: How to treat cancer
In modern medicine there is no way to completely treat cancer. It is said that cancer cells exist from the era when dinosaurs existed and they are constantly evolving. The only thing that we have learned from studies of the cause of cancer cells and the method of spreading such as "smoking cessation" "moderate diet" "exercise" "not exposing the skin to sunlight for a long time", out of all cancers Only about half can be prevented to some extent.
◆ 15: When can you do a robot's butler?
A robot that performs simple tasks such as squeezing cow's milk or sorting mails already exists, but a robot with intelligence enough to leave errands at home is not yet invented. In Japan, we are seriously considering the use of robots that will be useful in the field of welfare in 2025.
For the society in which human beings and robots coexist in 2025 "Report on next generation robot vision meeting" (draft)
◆ 16: What is on the ocean floor?
ByUSFWS - Pacific Region
In 1960,Don WalshWith Mr.Jack PicartMr. dives to a depth of about 11 km (11,000 m), yet 95% of the ocean is still unsearched.
◆ 17: Beyond the Black Hole
ByNASA's Marshall Space Flight Center
Rather than saying "I do not know what is on the other side of the black hole", it may be better to say that "a tool to investigate what is behind the black hole has not yet been invented". Einstein'sRelativity theoryAccording to, the black hole is being created by a huge star collapsing,Singular pointIt is said that he continues to dent until he forms an infinite small point called " There are various theories in the black hole besides those based on the theory of relativity.
◆ 18: Is it possible to live by young people?
There is a way of thinking that the aging phenomenon is one disease and "Can it be treated?". Not all of the aging phenomenon has been elucidated, but drug therapy has attracted attention as a method to prevent aging.
◆ 19: How to stop a population explosion
It is said that by 2050 the population on Earth will increase to 9 billion people, and problems such as food shortage are concerned with population increase. In explosion of the population, migration to Mars, construction of underground cities,Artificial foodVarious solutions are taken.
◆ 20: Is time travel possible?
Several physicists are spatial regions directly connecting from one spatio-temporal point to another distant pointWormholeAnd a spacecraft to create a thorough plan to enable time travel.