A bird appealing to females using "horror movie effect"
When watching a movie on a date, there may be many people who have had the experience of choosing a horror movie, expecting "hugging and hugging ... ...."
In a strategy similar to the human's underlying spirit that "You are reluctant to be afraid when you are afraid and thrashing, you are confused by bogs ... ...", the male uses the threat of predators and appeals to the female There seems to be a bird.
Details are as below.Using Fear to Flirt: The "Scary Movie Effect" «Science Life Blog« University of Chicago Medical Center
University of ChicagoEvolution ecologist Stephen Pruett-Jones Associate Professor has traveled back and forth between Australia and the USA for 20 yearsMurasaki Australia MusikhiiI have been studying the ecology of.
Murasaki Australia Musikui, although a pair of male and female partnered as a partner to make "home", sexually male and female breed with numerous partners other than partner outside "home" We are sending a unique social life which can also be called monogamous in society and multiple marriage in sexuality. Sexually mature young birds do not quite "stand alone" and sometimes "looking after my brother or sister while living with my parents", so many "family" seem to be a rather complicated family composition.
Male musk Australia musky male (left) and female (right).
By Mitchell Walters
In keeping observing, Dr. Pruett - Jones et al. Noticed another unique ecology of Murasaki Australia Musikuii.ButcherbirdIt is usually expected behavior to hear a cry of predators such as predators like this, when researchers make a big noise, it is normally expected to fly with a threat, but the male of Murasaki Australia musikui remains caught in a branch , It sounds crowed as if not afraid to know the place where the enemy is.
Melasaki Australia Musikikii 's natural enemy Butcherbird.Magpie Fly glassAnd nearby speciesMurpist familyIt is a bird.
Researchers are expressing that the appearance of male voice of Murasaki Australia Musikui overlaps with the voice of Butcherbird "like duet" "vocal hitch hiking". As it were, it is a free ride of accompaniment, but you can hear the birds of that duet from the following link.
Butcherbird and Male by robmitchum on SoundCloud - Create, record and share your sounds for free
Then why do you take a risky action of "barking when you hear the predator's voice?" "I am warning people in my surroundings" "I am not afraid to find out by predators and I appeal to females that I have the physical ability to escape even if found," for various reasons Yes.
Therefore, researchers used the iPod with audio files of birds' barks, in the South Australia stateBrookfield Conservation ParkSo we combined the Butcherbird's voice · male chirping type 1 (voice when marking the territory) · type 2 (voice when touching threats such as natural enemies) combined in various patterns and made an experiment to let the female listen It was. As a result, the female showed the reaction that Butcherbird responded most strongly to the pattern where the male voice type 2 overlapped, where the Butcherbird began to sing, and turned back to respond to the direction in which the cry was heard.
This is because when you listen to the voice of Butcherbird, the female becomes very careful, at that time the male gives a little "Type 2" cry, it is thought as a mechanism that allows the male to listen more carefully than when singing by solo It is said that it will be. Even when a human male speaks to a woman, I think that there is something that talks after being caught out loudly with "Hey Hey" before telling a complaint, but Muslims Australia Musikiki's male is crying Butcherbird It is used instead of this "hey hey". Also, due to the sense of crisis "predators are nearby", females are instinctively thought to be easy to mate with the nearby male.
Dr. Emma Greig, who currently worked at Associate Professor Pruett-Jones and worked at Cornell University, said "Type 2 songs are sexual appeals, and females are particularly sexual after hearing the predator's voice Because it is ready to respond to appeal, we can think of a really exciting theory that it sounds attractive even with the same song. "
In addition, "Male is dare to expose herself to danger, to appeal strength and try to attract scalpel"Handicap TheoryAlthough it was thought, since there was no difference in age, position, health condition and body color (vividness of the blue color of the feather) etc in the male singing male singing listening to the predator's voice, the predator Dr. Greig speculates that the act of singing in accordance with the voice of himself may not be so dangerous in fact. "I know the predator's place and that predator is not hunting, I know I am singing," said Dr. Greig. Even for older male and body weak male, if it is not dangerous to know the whereabouts of the predators by squeaking, the theory that "dare to distract dangerously appeal" can be excluded.
Does male who often sings "duet" singing listening to the cry of the predator actually have more opportunities for breeding compared to males that are not so? Associate professor Pruett - Jones says that answers will come out by specifying genetic fathers of chicks in the future and tracing their fatherhoods. Also, "vocal · hitch hiking" which crowns in response to the predator's voice is said to be widely used as a strategy for breeding not only by Murasaki Australia Musikui but also by male in many species, Dr. GreigfloodI heard that he still continues his research in Australia.