Succeeded in generating 'superconductivity', which has been a phenomenon at low temperatures for over 100 years, at room temperature


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Argonne National Laboratory

' Superconductivity ' is a phenomenon in which when a specific metal or compound is cooled, the electrical resistance of that substance becomes zero. Since 1911, when superconductivity was discovered, superconductivity has been described as 'occurring at low temperatures' and has occurred in environments of up to -23 degrees Celsius. However, a research team at the University of Rochester in the United States has revealed that superconductivity occurs even at room temperature.

Room-temperature superconductivity in a carbonaceous sulfur hydride | Nature
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2801-z

For The First Time, Physicists Have Achieved Superconductivity at Room Temperature
https://www.sciencealert.com/for-the-first-time-superconductivity-has-been-achieved-at-room-temperature

In a study by Ranga Diaz , a physicist at the University of Rochester, announced on Wednesday, October 14, 2020, the world's first superconductivity at room temperature of 15 degrees Celsius, ' room temperature superconductivity ' experiment It has been shown to be successful.

Prior to the discovery of Diaz et al., Compounds such as hydrogen sulfide and lanthanum hydrides increased the temperature at which superconductivity was generated. It is lanthanum hydride that succeeded in superconducting at -23 degrees Celsius, and it has been discovered that it becomes superconducting under ultra-high pressure of 170 gigapascals (GPa). The common atom that tends to become superconducting at high temperatures was 'hydrogen,' which is the lightest element in nature.



'We needed strong chemical bonds and light atoms to achieve superconductivity in non-cold environments. One of the strong bonds is a hydrogen bond, and the lightest is hydrogen,' said Diaz. He said that he also used hydrogen in his own experiments. However, hydrogen as a gas is an insulator and must be solidified under high pressure to become a superconducting substance. The research team of Diaz et al. Conducted experiments using 'Carbonaceous sulphur hydride', which synthesizes hydrogen, carbon, and sulfur, and found that a superconducting state can be realized in an environment of 15 degrees Celsius and a pressure of 270 GPa. discovered.

Regarding the discovery of room temperature superconductivity, Diaz said, 'Substances with extraordinary properties such as superconductivity could not change the world in the way many people envision because of the' low temperature 'limit. But our findings will break the barrier of low temperatures and open the door to many potential applications. '

The size of the substance in which room temperature superconductivity was generated was as small as 25 to 35 micrometers, and the pressure at which superconductivity was generated was also very high, so the discovery by Diaz et al. Can be used as a practical technology. It is expected that it will take a long time. 'The next step in the study is to reduce the pressure required by adjusting the composition of the material. Superconductors at normal temperature and pressure are finally within reach,' the research team commented. I will.

in Science, Posted by log1m_mn