What are the solar activities 'solar flare' and 'corona mass emission' that can have a great impact on the earth?



The sun floating in the sky does not seem to change at first glance, but in reality, various phenomena called

solar activity occur in the sun. Among such solar activity, emit radiation ' solar flare ' and gives off a plasma ' coronal mass ejections for the phenomenon that could give a significant impact on Earth that', science-based YouTube channel Kurzgesagt the 'solar flare and the coronal mass ejections Earth Animated movies explain the questions such as 'How much will it affect?' and 'Is there any countermeasures?'

Could Solar Storms Destroy Civilization? Solar Flares & Coronal Mass Ejections-YouTube


Although the sun looks like a solid, it's actually like a boiled, hot sea.



How hot it is, the atoms split into

electrons and nuclei and drift in the plasma .



This plasma is shaped by the

magnetic field of the sun.



The plasma of the sun produces protons and electrons, and the protons and electrons move around to produce a magnetic field. And this magnetic field creates a flow of molecules.



This molecular flow creates an annular current inside the sun called the ' solar dynamo .'



The magnetic field of the sun maintained by this solar dynamo has enormous energy and affects the entire solar system.



Due to this magnetic field, the sun's plasma is continuously pouring on the earth like 'rain of light.' This phenomenon is the '

solar wind .'



But the solar wind is not always constant. When the plasma of the sun is disturbed, the magnetic field emitted from the sun is also disturbed.



As the turbulence progresses, a magnetic field knot is formed on the surface of the sun...



The knot of the magnetic field may split, releasing a “ring of magnetic fields” with enormous energy.



This ring of magnetic fields is the true identity of solar activity that has a detrimental effect on the solar system.



One of the phenomena created by the magnetic field ring is the “sun flare”, which is a tsunami of radiation with high energy.



The solar flare that rushes at the speed of light pushes out and accelerates the protons on the solar wind, creating a phenomenon called 'Solar Proton Storm'.



The phenomenon that follows is 'Corona Mass Emission (CME)'. Corona mass ejection is the phenomenon in which billions of tons of plasma in the sun's atmosphere are torn off and ejected.



The plasma ejected by corona mass ejection can reach speeds of up to 9 million kilometers per hour.



If this plasma hits directly, it will not affect humanity on earth.



However, even small plasmas will affect satellites, wireless communications, and astronauts in outer space.



Human beings on Earth are unaffected by the Earth's atmosphere and magnetic fields. The Earth's atmosphere absorbs

X-rays and softens the effects of solar flares.



The earth's magnetic field acts to twist the plasma produced by corona mass ejection. The plasma, which is twisted by the magnetic field, falls mainly on the north and south poles of the earth along the magnetic lines of the earth.



Fantastic

aurora is a phenomenon created by electrons flying into the atmosphere from plasma falling on the north and south poles.



In most cases, solar storms have little impact on humanity on Earth. But the story is different for the massive solar storm known as the 'Super Solar Storm.'



'Super Solar Storm' has been confirmed to occur in 1859, 1872, 1909, 1921, 1989, and 2012, and is a phenomenon that occurs several times per century.



'Super Solar Storm' first emits a strong solar flare like a lightning strike. This solar flare then triggers a corona mass emission, producing billions of tons of magnetic plasma. This plasma travels 149.6 million km, the distance between the sun and the Earth, in just one day.



When plasma from 'Super Solar Storm' hits the earth directly, the impact compresses the earth's magnetic field and adds its energy to the earth's

magnetosphere .



In the worst case, the magnetism produced by this plasma merges with the earth's magnetic field, and the earth's magnet becomes a 'tail' shape.



Energy is gradually stored in this tail, and this energy is finally radiated to the earth. This phenomenon is '

magnetic storm .'



The magnetic field of a magnetic storm disturbs the current and affects the grid, resulting in a large-scale power outage and, in the worst case, an accident at a substation.



Quebec, Canada, actually experienced a major blackout during the 1989 'Super Solar Storm'.



The 1859 '

Carrington Event ', which is said to be the largest 'Super Solar Storm' in the history of observation, produced an aurora that could be observed even from the coast of Hawaii and the Caribbean Sea.



In the Rocky Mountains, people were confident that the morning had come because it was so bright that you could confuse it with the dawn.



In addition, the telegram system deployed in Europe and North America was affected and stopped, causing a spark to the device and causing an electric shock to the operator.



It is expected that the damage of 'Super Solar Storm' will become more severe in the modern times when the number of machines has increased.



In 2012, there was also a case where the same level of 'Super Solar Storm' as the Carrington event grabbed the earth.



If this 'Super Solar Storm' hits directly, it is thought that damage of 2.6 trillion dollars (about 280 trillion yen) has occurred in the United States alone. The amount of damage is about 20 times the amount of damage caused by the largest hurricane

Katrina , which caused the largest damage in the history of observation in the United States.



It was estimated that the damage to the global power grid would have taken four to ten years to recover.



The possibility of a direct hit of this level 'Super Solar Storm' is about 12% between 2020 and 2030.



However, by 2062 this possibility will reach 50%, and it is almost certain that a large-scale 'Super Solar Storm' will occur in the not too distant future.



And there's even worse news. A study published in 2019 claimed that in celestial bodies like the sun, an explosion phenomenon called '

super flare ' occurs every thousands of years.
According to this research, the magnetic field generated by this super flare is so strong that it can not be seen in other phenomena, and it can have a great influence on the earth.



If super flare occurs, not only will electricity on the earth, computers, smartphones, GPS, etc. not work, but...



Even basic infrastructure such as water supply and medical equipment may be shut down.



However, measures have already been taken to prevent the effects of this type of solar activity. Scientists observe the sun and monitor the occurrence of solar storms.



Engineers such as electric power companies continue to pay attention to the risk of the solar storm.



In an emergency, the power grid will be temporarily shut down to protect the substation.



The risks of solar activity exist but can be controlled. One day, the sun may shine and attack the earth. You shouldn't neglect to prepare for that moment.



in Science,   Video, Posted by log1k_iy