What is the controversy of the 20th century 'Canal of Mars' that took hold of the hearts of many people from translation mistakes?

ByNASA's Marshall Space Flight Center

In the 2020'sPlan to send people to MarsWas announced, on a spaceshipMake a "magnetic field shield" around Mars and create an environment where humans can liveIn the present age where it is considered to be considered, the idea of ​​"there is a Martian on Mars" can be said to have been completely denied. However, in the early 1900's Space Science, it was believed that "there are canals on Mars", and the idea of ​​worrying about the existence of Martian people making it and the "Martian's invasion of the earth" was widespread. And its origin was due to only one letter "mistranslation".

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The interest of people around Mars began to rise from the early 1900s. The following graph shows the number of times that the word "Mars" appeared in the article of the New York Times, it has a big boom from the 1910s to the 1940s, followed by a number of large and small shows I did it.

Italian astronomer who has been doing research from the 1800's to the early 1900's,Giovanni Ski PalarelliIn 1877, I observed a Mars on the 22 cm refraction telescope of the Milan Observatory and found a linear pattern on its surface. Ski Palarelli leaves the observation of the Martian sketch in the sketch, leaving the artificial straight line drawn on the orange earth. Moreover, some of them are arranged in parallel at even intervals.

Even after that, Skiaparelli who published the same research results in several times expressed this pattern using the word "canali" in Italian. Although canali means "streaks" and the like, when this word was brought to the United States, it was translated as "canal" meaning "canal", so "canal" exists on Mars It is said that the idea of ​​being "spread" at a stretch. In this theory, laterLowell ObservatoryAstronomers to buildPerseval LowellWe also announced the theory that "the canal is a facility for irrigation".

Although it is completely denied in the current science, the Lowell insisted on the existence of "Martian" who built the canal without any doubt about the existence of the canal. Furthermore, that idea is also helped by the ambience of "It will not be wrong" that existed in the science community for the general at the time, leading to the attention of many people.

Many articles on the Martian theory were posted on the New York Times in the 1900s and 1920s. In 1904, a novel by H · G · Wells, which is said to have reached a social phenomenon at that timeSpace WarIt is said that the war between the Earthling and the Martian and the romance related to it were posted in the same way.

Mary Proctor Writes About Mars, Planet of Romance - It Will Be in Opposition to the Earth Early Next Month and Astronomers Are Preparing for Their Observations - Changes of Color of the Mare Erythraeum and Other Changes - The Old Question - Is Mars Inhabited? - View Article - NYTimes.com

In a death reminder article when Lowell died in 1916, he has contributed "I discovered 550 canals" and there is no doubt about the theory he chanted.

(PDF)PROF. LOWELL DIES - MARTIAN THEORY HIS - Astronomer Who Declared the Planet Inhabited Succumbs at Flagstaff Observatory. - View Article - NYTimes.com

Nonetheless, it is also a fact that there was intense debate over the Martian theory at that time. Especially between Mr. Valdemer Kempfeld and Mr. Robert Peale, who was a science writer for the New York Times, Mr. Robert Peale said that interactions on the possibility of building a building on Mars were done. Mr. Kemfeld claimed that "it is possible to make a canal on Mars" based on various theories, but Mr. Peel made a fierce intercourse to criticize it as "ridiculous" He said that he was.

After that, as Mars's research progresses, the place where the existence of Martian people is being denied is where everyone knows. However, from this series of "Martian uproar", it is possible to capture the interest of the fact that a large movement started from a translation of just one word, people attracted great attention and active discussion was done. And it seems to be said that the "truth" that people once believed will tell the fact that it will change with the times and scientific progress.

in Science, Posted by darkhorse_log