It turns out that ``ultra-processed foods'' such as fast food and snacks are associated with 32 negative health effects such as metabolic syndrome and mental illness.

Ultra-processed foods are industrially produced foods that contain large amounts of salt, sugar, and fat, and include various foods that are popular in modern society, such as junk foods, retort foods, and snacks. An international research team from the United States, Australia, and other countries analyzed 14 reviews involving nearly 10 million people and found that eating ultra-processed foods has negative effects on health across 32 categories, including mortality and mental health. It turns out that they are related.

Ultra-processed food exposure and adverse health outcomes: umbrella review of epidemiological meta-analyses | The BMJ

Ultra-processed food linked to 32 harmful effects to health, review finds | Health | The Guardian

In modern times, consumption of a wide variety of ultra-processed foods such as junk food, ready-to-eat meals, cereals, protein bars, and carbonated drinks has increased, with more than half of the average diet in the UK and US now consisting of ultra-processed foods. Masu. Diets containing approximately 80% ultra-processed foods are particularly common among young people, the poor, and people living in disadvantaged areas.

Ultra-processed foods are typically manufactured using multiple industrial processes and contain additives such as colorants, emulsifiers, and flavorings. Furthermore, while they tend to be high in sugar, salt, and fat, they are low in nutrients such as vitamins and dietary fiber, which has been found to have various negative effects on health, according to previous research. However, there has been no comprehensive review evaluating the wide range of evidence regarding the negative health effects of ultra-processed foods.

A research team comprising experts from

Johns Hopkins University in the US, the University of Sydney in Australia, and Sorbonne University in France conducted a comprehensive review by examining 14 review papers, including 45 meta-analyses . .

In these studies, ultra-processed food intake was estimated using questionnaires about the frequency of eating certain foods and meals over the past 24 hours, and the relationship with various health factors was investigated. The 32 health factors that were shown to be associated with ultra-processed foods in this study are as follows.

・Mortality rate (overall mortality rate, cancer mortality rate, cardiovascular-related mortality rate, heart disease-related mortality rate)
・Cancer (breast cancer, whole cancer, central nervous system tumor , chronic lymphocytic leukemia, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer)
・Mental health (sleep-related adverse events, anxiety disorders, general mental illnesses, depression)
・Respiratory system (asthma/ expiratory wheezing )
・Cardiovascular system (complex of cardiovascular disease events, cardiovascular disease mortality, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia , decrease in good cholesterol levels)
・Gastrointestinal system ( Crohn's disease , ulcerative colitis )
・Metabolic system (abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia, metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease , obesity, overweight, combination of overweight and obesity, type 2 diabetes)

The analysis found that high intake of ultra-processed foods was associated with an increased risk of 32 negative health effects. The research team concluded, ``Overall, there is a direct link between exposure to ultra-processed foods and 32 health parameters spanning mortality, cancer, mental health, respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and metabolic systems. A significant relationship was found.'

For example, people with high intakes of ultra-processed foods have an approximately 50% increased risk of cardiovascular disease-related mortality, a 48-53% higher risk of anxiety disorders and general mental illness, and a 12% higher risk of type 2 diabetes. The research team reported that evidence showed an increase in %.

On the other hand, there were some problems with the comprehensive review, including differences in the persuasiveness of the evidence and the possibility that factors or variables other than ultra-processed food intake influenced the results. I also admit that there is. Additionally, this study only investigated the correlation between the intake of ultra-processed foods and negative health effects, and does not prove a causal relationship.

Still, Dr. Chris van Tureken of University College London , who was not involved in the study, said the findings are consistent with a large body of independent research examining ultra-processed foods and their negative health effects. doing.

The research team said, ``Higher exposure to ultra-processed foods was associated with higher risks of adverse health outcomes, particularly cardiometabolic and general mental illness, and mortality.'' It was argued that it provides a basis for developing population-based public health measures with the aim of reducing intake of ultra-processed foods.

in Science,   Junk Food, Posted by log1h_ik