As a result of research that metabolism changes when eating in the middle of the night and fat accumulates, even if the calorie intake is the same, it becomes fat just by eating late
It is empirically known that eating late at night makes it easier to gain weight, but there are not many studies that have rigorously examined how eating late at night affects the mechanism of obesity in humans. A study published in the peer-reviewed scientific journal Cell Metabolism in October 2022 found that even if the calorie intake is the same, if the time to eat is late, there will be differences in metabolism and hunger.
Late isocaloric eating increases hunger, decreases energy expenditure, and modifies metabolic pathways in adults with overweight and obesity: Cell Metabolism
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Frank Scheer and colleagues at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston conducted an experiment in which subjects were asked to eat at different times to understand why late meals increase the risk of obesity. .
Regarding the purpose of the experiment, Scheer said, ``We wanted to examine the mechanisms that explain why late eating increases the risk of obesity. 'Time diets have been shown to be associated with increased risk of obesity, increased body fat and failed weight loss, and we wanted to understand why.'
Sixteen subjects with BMI values in the overweight or obese range participated in the experiment, five of whom were women. The experiment was divided into two times, and the first meal was taken at the usual timing, that is, 'breakfast at 8:00, lunch at 12:00, dinner at 17:30'. Then, in the second experiment conducted several weeks later, the timing of the same meal was shifted about 4 hours later, that is, the schedule of ``skip breakfast, lunch at 12:00, dinner at 17:30, and midnight snack at 21:30.'' I ate at
In order to avoid unnecessary effects on the experimental data, factors other than meal times, such as the type and amount of food, calories, sleep time, light and dark hours of the day, physical activity, and even posture, were thoroughly examined. said to have been managed. In addition, for the three days before the start of each experiment, the contents of meals and meal schedules were also made to match those of the experiments.
During the experiment, the research team asked the subjects to report their hunger and appetite periodically, took blood samples, measured body temperature and energy expenditure, and analyzed changes in metabolism, hormone balance, and gene expression. I checked the difference.
As a result of the experiment, it turned out that eating late at night lowered the concentration of the hormone leptin, which is a sign of satiety, for 24 hours, and that the subjects actually felt hunger. Furthermore, eating late reduced body temperature, slowed the rate of calorie burning, and expressed genes associated with increased adipose tissue and decreased lipolysis, resulting in increased fat storage.
Regarding the results, lead author Nina Vujovich said, ``In this study we asked, 'Is the time to eat important when everything else is held constant? And we found that eating four hours later made a big difference in hunger levels, how we burned calories after a meal, and how we stored fat.'
In this study, the male-to-female ratio was 11:5, so there were few women, so the research team plans to recruit more women in the future so that the results of this research can be applied to a wider range of people.