Summarizing 20 years of research that corporal punishment for children only increases developmental risks and has only adverse effects

When corporal punishment is used to educate children in early childhood, research has shown that children who receive corporal punishment

tend to delay the development of social adaptability, language and motor skills, and psychology that scolding and scolding leads to poor behavior and depression. academic research, etc. A paper published in the Canadian Journal of Medical Association (CMAJ) by researchers from the University of Manitoba in Canada summarizes the 20-year history of research since the 1990s and reaffirms the conclusions of ``the risks and effects of corporal punishment in children''. preaching its importance.

Physical punishment of children: lessons from 20 years of research - PMC

Dr. Joan E. Durant, a child clinical psychologist at the University of Manitoba, analyzed 20 years of published research on corporal punishment from 1990 to 2012 and concluded the relationship between child development and corporal punishment. I'm here. According to Durant, in 1990, four countries had banned corporal punishment, but by 2000, as research progressed, 31 countries had enacted laws banning corporal punishment of children. Because of this, research on corporal punishment is an important factor.

A 1991 paper by Murray A. Strauss of the University of New Hampshire showed that ``children who have received corporal punishment become aggressive.'' On the other hand, corporal punishment tends to be stronger for aggressive children. A direct relationship was suspected. Strauss talks about a similar ``chain theory'' of corporal punishment in other studies , and Nathan Azlin of Nova Southeastern University said in an experiment with squirrel monkeys, ``Aversive stimuli can induce aggression.'' Mr. Lewis Fairchild of West Texas State University showed that by letting children play with dolls after showing a video of corporal punishment, ``If you see corporal punishment, you will show an aggressive reaction.'' , researchers began to identify mechanisms linking corporal punishment and aggression in children.

On the other hand, if we apply the ``randomized controlled trial'', which is a common method of demonstrating causal relationships in scientific research, to corporal punishment, it is necessary to actually give corporal punishment to children and see their reactions, so we adopt this method. is impossible. Therefore, in the 1990s, although it was possible to study the effect of reducing corporal punishment, it was thought that it was not possible to study the effect of imposing corporal punishment. Therefore, in order to address causality within ethical boundaries, researchers designed a '

prospective study ' that followed groups with corporal punishment over time to measure effects, as well as more sophisticated studies. Dr. Durant said that more and more statistical modeling techniques were being applied.

The first large-scale prospective study, published in 1997 by a research team at the University of New Hampshire, analyzed interviews with 807 mothers with children aged 6 to 9. In this study, corporal punishment given to children aged 6 to 9 years was predicted to increase the level of antisocial behavior that children displayed during the second year of life. After that, the research team at Calvin University also concluded that corporal punishment affects children's aggression regardless of the age, race, and family composition of parents and children.

In 2002, a groundbreaking meta-analysis analyzed 27 previous studies of corporal punishment and child aggression, all of which found a significant positive relationship. . Similar findings have been found in all similar studies since this meta-analysis, and all studies consistently suggest a direct causal relationship between physical punishment and child behavior.

Since around 2000, research has been conducted not only on the adverse effects of corporal punishment that lead to aggression in children, but also on mental health in adulthood. A 1999 paper published in the CMAJ showed an association between childhood slaps and spankings and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in a large Canadian sample. This conclusion has been corroborated by successive studies, showing that corporal punishment is associated with a wide range of conditions from childhood to adulthood, including depression, unhappiness, anxiety, hopelessness, drug and alcohol use, and general psychological maladjustment. It became popular to think that it was related to serious mental health problems.

In addition, Dr. Durant cites research on the 'traditional punishment and abuse dichotomy' as a factor that has greatly changed the general idea of corporal punishment. A 2001 Canadian Abuse and Neglect Incidence Study showed that 75% of physical abuse of children originally began with educational corporal punishment. In addition, in a large-scale study also conducted in Canada, children who were hit on the buttocks by their parents were more likely to be beaten and kicked beyond corporal punishment by their parents than children who had never been hit on the buttocks. found to be seven times more likely to receive

Dr. Durant acknowledges that parental competence and psychological health have many effects on children's behavior, and that providing parental support and education can reduce parental corporal punishment and children's antisocial behavior. He says he can. Dr. Durant added, 'A number of studies have found that physical punishment increases the risk of wide-ranging, long-lasting, negative developmental outcomes.' 'Most physical abuse of children occurs in the context of punishment,' summarizes past research, and warns against using corporal punishment, which has no benefits and only risks. I am calling to

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