What are the solar activities 'solar flare' and 'coronal mass ejection' that can have a great impact on the earth?

At first glance, the sun floating in the sky does not seem to change, but in reality

, various phenomena called solar activity are occurring in the sun. Among such solar activity, emit radiation ' solar flare ' and gives off a plasma ' coronal mass ejections for the phenomenon that could give a significant impact on Earth that', science-based YouTube channel Kurzgesagt the 'solar flare and the coronal mass ejections Earth The animation movie explains the questions such as 'How much impact does it have on the earth?' And 'Is there a countermeasure?'

Could Solar Storms Destroy Civilization? Solar Flares & Coronal Mass Ejections --YouTube

The sun looks solid, but it's actually like a boiling sea.

How hot it is is that atoms split into

electrons and nuclei and float in the plasma.

This plasma is shaped by

the magnetic field of the sun.

The plasma of the sun produces protons and electrons, and the protons and electrons move around to produce a magnetic field. And this magnetic field creates the flow of molecules.

This flow of molecules creates a cyclic current inside the sun called the 'solar dynamo.'

The solar magnetic field maintained by this solar dynamo has enormous energy and affects the entire solar system.

Due to this magnetic field, the sun's plasma is constantly pouring onto the earth like a 'rain of light.' This phenomenon is the '

solar wind .'

However, the solar wind is not always constant. When the sun's plasma is disturbed, the magnetic field emitted by the sun is also disturbed.

As the turbulence progresses, a magnetic field knot is formed on the surface of the sun ...

The knot of the magnetic field may split, releasing a 'ring of magnetic field' with enormous energy.

This ring of magnetic fields is the true nature of solar activity, which has a detrimental effect on the solar system.

One of the phenomena created by the ring of magnetic fields is 'solar flare,' which is a tsunami of high-energy radiation.

The solar flare that rushes at the speed of light pushes out and accelerates the protons on the solar wind, creating a phenomenon called 'Solar Proton Storm'.

The following phenomenon is a 'coronal mass ejection (CME)'. Coronal mass ejections are a phenomenon in which billions of tons of plasma in the Sun's atmosphere are torn off and ejected.

Plasma emitted by coronal mass ejections can reach speeds of up to 9 million kilometers per hour.

Even if this plasma hits directly, it will not affect humankind on the earth.

But even small plasmas can affect satellites, wireless communications, and astronauts in space.

It is thanks to the earth's atmosphere and magnetic field that humankind on the earth is not affected. The Earth's atmosphere

absorbs X-rays to mitigate the effects of solar flares.

The Earth's magnetic field acts to twist the plasma due to coronal mass ejections. The plasma twisted by the magnetic field falls along the lines of magnetic force of the earth, mainly to the north and south poles of the earth.

A fantastic

aurora is a phenomenon created by electrons flying into the atmosphere from the plasma that falls on the north and south poles.

In most cases, solar storms have little effect on humankind on Earth. But the story is different for a large solar storm known as the 'Super Solar Storm.'

'Super Solar Storm' was confirmed to occur in 1859, 1872, 1909, 1921, 1989, and 2012, and is a phenomenon that occurs several times per century.

'Super Solar Storm' first emits a strong solar flare like a lightning strike. This solar flare then causes a coronal mass ejection, producing billions of tons of magnetic plasma. This plasma travels the distance between the Sun and the Earth, 149.6 million kilometers, in just one day.

When the plasma produced by 'Super Solar Storm' hits the earth directly, the impact compresses the earth's magnetic field and adds

that energy to the earth's magnetosphere.

In the worst case, the magnetism produced by this plasma coalesces along the Earth's magnetic field, and the Earth's magnetism becomes a 'tail' -like shape.

Energy is gradually stored in this tail, and this energy is finally radiated to the earth. This phenomenon is called '

magnetic storm '.

The magnetic field of a geomagnetic storm disturbs currents and affects the power grid, causing large-scale power outages and, in the worst case, accidents at substations.

In Quebec, Canada, a major power outage actually occurred during the 1989 'Super Solar Storm.'

The 1859 Carrington Event , considered the largest 'Super Solar Storm' in observation history, produced aurora borealis that could even be observed from Hawaii and the Caribbean coast.

In the Rocky Mountains, the brightness was so bright that it could be mistaken for dawn, and people thought that 'the morning had come.'

In addition, the telegram system deployed in Europe and North America was affected and stopped, causing an accident in which the equipment sparked and the operator got an electric shock.

In today's world with more machines than at that time, the damage of 'Super Solar Storm' is expected to be even greater.

In 2012, there was an incident in which 'Super Solar Storm', which is at the same level as the Carrington event, grabbed the earth.

If this 'Super Solar Storm' hits directly, it is thought that the damage of 2.6 trillion dollars (about 280 trillion yen) would have occurred in the United States alone. This amount of damage is about 20 times the amount of

damage to the super-large Hurricane Katrina , which caused the greatest damage in the history of observation in the United States.

It was estimated that 'the damage to the world's power grid would have taken four to ten years to recover.'

The possibility that this level of 'Super Solar Storm' will hit directly is about 12% between 2020 and 2030.

However, this chance is expected to reach 50% in 2062, and it is almost certain that a large-scale 'Super Solar Storm' will occur in the not too distant future.

In addition, there is worse news. A study published in 2019 claimed that celestial bodies such as the Sun experience an explosion called

'super flares' every thousands of years. According to this research, the magnetic field generated by this superflare is so strong that it cannot be seen in other phenomena, and it can have a great impact on the earth.

If super flares occur, not only will electricity, computers, smartphones, GPS, etc. on the earth become unusable ...

Even basic infrastructure such as water and medical equipment may be shut down.

However, measures have already been taken to prevent the effects of this type of solar activity. Scientists are observing the sun to monitor the occurrence of solar storms.

Engineers such as electric power companies continue to pay attention to the risk of solar storms ...

In an emergency, the power grid will be temporarily shut down to protect the substation.

The risks of solar activity exist, but they are controllable. One day the sun may shine and start attacking the earth. You should not neglect the preparation for that time.

in Science,   Video, Posted by log1k_iy