Five major incidents that occurred during the 50 years since the Internet was developed
The ARPANET , which was the predecessor of the Internet in 1969, will be the 50th anniversary in 2019. Academic news site The Conversation has compiled five major incidents that occurred half a century after the Internet was born.
5 milestones that created the internet, 50 years after the first network message
◆ 1: Encryption failure (1978)
In 1973, an incident occurred where a high school student invaded ARPANET, which the US Department of Defense would have completely managed. In response, Vinton Surf and Robert Kahn, who are counted as members of engineers called `` the father of the Internet, '' proposed and studied that the basic part of the network should be highly encrypted Advanced. However, the efforts of Mr. Surf and others were not realized because of opposition in 1978.
Mr. Surf and others do not publicize the people who opposed encryption, but the fact that somebody opposed it was said in Mr. Surf's paper released in 1983 .
With the loss of intrinsic encryption opportunities on the Internet, today's Internet users can maintain security with complex passwords and multi-factor authentication , or protect privacy with anonymization technologies such as Tor. It is necessary to do.
On the other hand, The Conversation said, “The early PCs had very poor performance and could not perform efficient encrypted communication, so if the Internet was encrypted, we did not see the spread today. 'It may be,' he said, and cannot be evaluated in one aspect.
◆ 2: The birth of the TCP / IP protocol (1983)
Instead of the above-mentioned encryption communication, Mr. Surf et al. Developed and completed the TCP / IP protocol in 1983. With the advent of this communication protocol, PCs around the world have acquired a common language, and network efficiency has improved dramatically.
One of the biggest features of the TCP / IP protocol is that it has integrated all types of networks by reducing the role of the network to the limit and reducing the burden. One thing that is often cited as a light burden on the TCP / IP protocol is that 'it works theoretically with a threaded phone'. In fact, there is also an implementation plan called “ IP by bird carriers ” using a message pigeon , but in fact it is a joke, but in South Africa it is actually “ confirmed that the message pigeon communication is overwhelmingly faster than the country's slow Internet” An unusual event has also occurred.
◆ 3: Section 230 (1996)
Around 1996, 22% of Americans used the Internet, and the Internet exploded. Along with this, the surge in pornography has started to bother American politicians. So, James Exon, who was a senator at the time, established the ' Communication Dignity Law '. I tried to regulate the Internet to eradicate pornography.
However, IT companies and civic groups have rebelled against this regulation as “it impairs freedom of expression”. The debate was brought into the court of the Supreme Court. At this time, the conclusion of the Supreme Court was that the Internet regulations are unconstitutional. In response to this, the Communication Quality Act established that 'PC service providers and users with two-way communication are not responsible for the publisher or sender of content provided by another content provider.' It is called “ Communication Quality Act Article 230 (common name: Section 230) ”.
Section 230 consisting of 26 words is also called '26 words that made the Internet' and is said to be an epoch-making provision that protects the freedom of the Internet. On the other hand, from the part of the regulation commentators as 'section 230 was allowed to unbridled network management by Facebook and Twitter' claims are raised also the voice is that of it's pros and cons.
◆ 4: Opening of the Internet by the US government (1998)
In the TCP / IP protocol, content on the Internet must have a unique IP address, but the IP address is only a list of numbers such as “192.168.2.201”, which is difficult for humans to remember. For this reason, IP addresses are managed in association with more easily remembered domains such as `` indiana.edu '', but initially the domain management was left to only one American computer scientist, John Postel. Had been.
Therefore, there was a debate that an organization to manage the domain should be established, but the US government waited for the debate. The US Department of Commerce at that time thought that the US government should manage the Internet developed by the United States, promulgated a document entitled “Proposal for improving technical management of Internet names and addresses”, commonly known as a green paper. And started to manage the Internet.
However, because of the fierce opposition from the Internet officials, the government newly announced the document “Management of Internet Names and Addresses”, commonly known as a white paper, which gave up the position that “the Internet was realized by the investment of the US government” Although not, the private-sponsored process was to be maintained.
As a result, domain management is undertaken by private organizations such as InterNIC and ICANN , and the Internet is now open to the whole world, not under the control of a single government.
◆ 5: The beginning of cyber warfare (2010)
In June 2010, ' Staxnet ' was discovered as malware used in attacks targeting Iranian nuclear facilities. The Stax Net, which is said to have been released to Iran by the US National Security Agency (NSA), is said to be the first digital attack that has caused physical damage.
As of 2019, nearly ten years after the discovery of StaxNet in 2010, cyber attacks are a common means of war, and individuals using the Internet can no longer be irrelevant to these attacks. On the other hand, following the Geneva Convention that stipulates the humane treatment of prisoners on the battlefield, discussions to establish a “ Digital Geneva Convention ” that includes provisions that ban attacks on civil life facilities such as infrastructure, etc. , Efforts to protect the peace of the Internet continue.
Against this backdrop, The Conversation said, “Events related to Internet peace that will occur in 2019 will be milestones in the next 50 years,” 2019 is an important time for the Internet. I stressed that there was.
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