To be able to reproduce even if a human being cuts his hands and feet, it is key to rescue "wooper tool"
"Wooper looperKnown asMexican SalamanderHas a marvelous ability to regenerate that it restores completely to the arrangement of bones, joints and muscles in a matter of time even if the limbs are cut. Although it is a wooper rover, which is often a subject of research, due to the dramatic decrease in the number of wild populations, the survival of regenerative medicine, which has made remarkable progress in recent years, is being compromised.
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The symbol of Mexico, Wooperall, is a creature loved as a pet around the world because it can be raised relatively easily in aquarium. In some restaurants in JapanOffered as fried fromSometimes, thousands of wooper looper have become research targets because of the mysterious feature of reproducing even a part of the limbs and the heart even if it is cut. Meanwhile, in Mexico, the number of habitats has drastically decreased due to destruction of habitats by development and water pollution. In the surroundings of Lake Sochimilco in Mexico, in 1998 survey it was found that there were 6000 animals per square kilometer, but in 2015 only 35 were found per square kilometer.
Wooperall's strangeness has already been noted in the 1800's and is also a German naturalist and an explorerAlexander von HumboldtIn 1804 he sent two wooper lovers in alcohol to Paris. Many salamanders have characteristics as terrestrial organisms as they sexually mature, while on the other hand wooper looper will remain underwater with gills like feathers growing even though it grows. For this reason, paleontologistsStephen Jay GouldMr. Woo expressed Wuppertal as "sexually mature tadpole".
In 1863, 34 explorers sent 34 Wooper Loopers to the Natural History Museum in Paris and a zoologistAuguste DumerilMr. breeded them and handed them to European research institutions and researchers. With this, it will be possible for wooper lovers to be raised at research institutions around the world for hundreds of years.
Researchers especially focused on the healing and regenerative ability of Wooper looper. Wooper looper can play even if the limbs are cut, and even if it is cut several times, it is possible to reproduce the same function as the limbs that originally existed. At this time, the cell of Wooperaaru "knows" the structure to be regenerated, the entire arm when cutting was done from the shoulder, the forearm and the hand when it is cut from the elbow, when the wrist is cut I will play only the hand. In addition, we know that wooper rope accepts the head without rejection even if it is transplanted.
It is a big mystery as to how the wooper's ability to regenerate works and why mammals can not have the regenerative ability like wooper looper. When human beings are injured, macrophages play an active part and scars are made instantly and the organization is not regenerated. On the other hand, in the body of Wooperaar, macrophages take in dead cells, as well as the cell population of young embryos "A shoot"Has been found in previous studies to play a role in regenerating the cut arm or heart.
In the case of humans and mice, the ability to play like Wooperall is low, and as the year goes on, the ability to reproduce falls. Continuing the research of Wooperaar may possibly awaken the ability of human beings to regenerate, but it requires many months. And it is a big challenge for future research to decrease the number of wild Wooperluoper as wooper loupers breeding in the laboratory have a high percentage of inbreeding.
"Degree of inbreeding"Inbreeding coefficient", It is said that the maximum numerical value for healthy growth of laboratory organisms is 12.5 when identical mono twins are 100 and red others are 0. After repeated relatives of marriage children born with genetic diseases were born and led to the discontinuation of clansHabsburg FamilyIt is said that the inbreeding number was 20, but the inbreeding number of Wooperaoper has reached 35 further higher than that.
When inbreeding occurs, diversity of genes is not born, so that diseases suddenly spread to laboratories and strain preservation centers, and many individuals' lives may be lost. In order to solve the problem, it is necessary to bring wild wow pooler genes, but as of 2018 when wild individuals are decreasing, research on regeneration itself is in danger of survival.
On the other hand, in recent years,Genetic editing technology "CRISPR"By using Wooper 's research, the progress has been making great progress. Up to now, researchers at Wooperluoper have not succeeded in editing like Woeper Looper's specific genes like other creatures, but researchers such as Eli Tanaka and others, such as Eli Tanaka, It was able to observe how regeneration is done by marking specific cells. In February 2018 that the genome of Woopera Rapper is 32 billion base pairs, which is more than 10 times that of the human genomeIt has been published as research.
The number of wooper looper drastically decreasing in Lake Sochimilco is related not only to water pollution, but also to the release of exotic fish. From the 1970s to the 1980s, the United Nations to increase regional protein sourcesTilapiaI brought two kinds of fish called Koi and Koi. It is said that these fish have eaten children of Wooperaughter.
Ecologist Luis Samburano mapped the area where Wuparlooper is inhabited and has plans to make wooper looper increase its number by asking local fishermen to catch fish repeatedly. Although there is an idea of releasing the increased wooper looper in the laboratory, Mr. San Burano insists that "it is more effective to make a shelter in the place where Wuper Lapr is inhabited". However, as for the people with environmental pollution, it is hard to find a clue to solving. At storm in Mexico City, wastewater containing ammonia, heavy metals and toxic chemicals flows out from the waste disposal site into Lake Sochimilco. Since the skin of the wooper looper is highly permeable and sensitive to sewage, many researchers are trying to increase the number of wooper looper, but as 2018 it is not easy to increase the number of woopers to decrease It is said that it is not.