Japanese incandescent light bulbs were shaking the worldwide bulb cartel "poibos cartel"
It was concluded by the world's leading bulb manufacturer in 1924Poibos cartelDecided to keep the life of the incandescent lamp not to exceed 1000 hours and tried to obtain stable profit. As this cartel approaches the World War II gradually it will not be able to continue, but it seems there was a Japanese incandescent bulb as one of the reasons that brought about the end.
The Great Lightbulb Conspiracy - IEEE Spectrum
December 23, 1924, Germany in Switzerland GenevaOSRAMAnd the NetherlandsPhillips,FrenchLa Compagnie des Lampes,America'sGeneral ElectricRepresentatives of the world's leading bulb manufacturers gathered and signed Poibos Cartel. This is said to be the first cartel in history.
Contents agreed at Poibos · cartel is "to make the incandescent lamp's life less than 1000 hours". However, since the average life span of the incandescent light bulb of each light bulb manufacturer at that time was about 1,500 hours - 2,500 hours, it will be necessary to implement technical measures to make a significant time reduction. Still, whySystematic obsolescenceThe reason why this agreement could be said is that each manufacturer approved the advantage that "if we can promote the replacement of consumer bulbs, we can secure profits".
This cartel is called "the treaty for the development of the international incandescent light bulb industry", and the manufacturers concluded with are Hungary'sTungsramAnd the United KingdomEnglish Electric,JapaneseTokyo ElectricIn each country, "Incandescent light bulbs have the most efficient lifetime of about 1000 hours, they will not be brighter as they emit heat, and power is wastedTrade offIt is said that we decided to let consumers recognize the lie that "there is a relationship between them".
After concluding this cartel, the incandescent bulbs manufactured by each manufacturer will be tested regularly in Switzerland. In this test, if the life of an incandescent lamp exceeds 1000 hours or it is shorter than the reference value, a fine is imposed. As a result, researchers from each manufacturer were forced to shorten the life of incandescent lamps in a short period of time.
Each manufacturer's researchers took two approaches to incandescent light bulbs, "operate at a voltage higher than the standard voltage" and "increase the current" and had an average of 1800 hours in about 8 years from 1926 to 1934 It is reported that the service life could be shortened to 1205 hours.
Thus, with the effect of Poibos · cartel, we sold 335.7 million light bulbs from 1926 to 1927, and from 1930 to 1931 it was up to 420.8 million units sold four years later. In addition, the actual manufacturing cost also declined rapidly, so the profit ratio seems to be high.
However, the cartels that had been held among large companies will gradually become difficult to continue. That is because Japanese incandescent light bulbs are sweeping the world. In Japan, brand orientation is strong and demand for incandescent bulbs of high price manufactured by major manufacturers such as Tokyo Electric, etc. of cartel companies was high, so low price incandescent bulbs made by small factories and family-owned workshops were hardly sold domestically, It will be exported all over the world including the USA and Europe. Then, an inexpensive incandescent light bulb, which is a fraction of the light bulb of a cartel company, was excellent in cost performance and became a hit product in a blink of an eye. In 1922 to 1933, the production of inexpensive incandescent bulbs was 45 million It will increase to 300 million pieces.
After Japan's incandescent light bulbs are exported, the number of light bulbs sold by cartel companies will decline by more than 20% in about four years from 1930 to 1933, and discussions will be disputed among companies on the merits of cartels It began. And as the World War II approached, the adjustment between companies became difficult from the influence of war, and the cartel was to be abolished in 1940.