The brain does not "dominate" the body but "adjusts"
Although the idea that "the brain dominates the body" has been dominant for a long time, in recent years the gastrointestinal tract"Second brain"It is known that the human body is not moved only by the brain, such as being called. Mr. Antonio Damascio, a neuroscientist, is one who has the idea that "the brain does not control the body, but is regulating" and is different from the tendency to exaggerate "greatness of the brain" is showing.
The Evolution of Pleasure and Pain
Mr. Damascio is a person who names the world as a researcher of "emotion". In modern times, many people have the idea of "the brain acts like a computer in the body and sends commands to other parts of the body at a dominant position", that is, "brain center" . However, Mr. Damascio said, "As the body affects the brain and the heart, the brain affects the body", it is not separable that the brain and the body interact, and We insist that the brain and body organisms interact strongly with the "environment."
Mr. Damascio's new book "The Strange Order of Things: Life, Feeling, and the Making of Cultures"Focused on" emotion "and" why biological evolution has made man flourish as a seed ". I am closely wondering why people can spur science and create medicine, religion, art.
Scientist'sFrancis ClickAlthough he had the idea that "human thoughts and emotional spirit are all other than neurons", Mr. Damacio who was a click and a friend said that "absolutely the opposite of human action and spirit is not established by neurons alone" I have the idea of. The nervous system works by constantly cooperating with other parts of the body and interacting with it, and this is apparent also from the fact that the nervous system performs the assistance of the organization first.
In the process of evolution, organisms have acquired endocrine and immune systems and metabolism has started. Then, a role to adjust such activities to be able to be done at the same time became necessary, and the nervous system played its part. From this, Mr. Damascio's idea that the brain "controls" the body rather than "controlling" the body, "smoothing" the overall flow.
And in the millions of years the process develops and the nervous system will coordinate not only within the body but also the "outside world" and "inside world". "This is what the nervous system named" cerebral cortex "does," Mr. Damascio said, allowing human beings to do a variety of things such as recognition, memory, reasoning, operation, translation.
Damascio through "The Strange Order of Things"HomeostasisWe are preaching the importance of. Homeostasis is also called "homeostasis" and may be thought of as the same as "equilibrium", but according to Damascio, this is an error. Because "death" is also a state of equilibrium. Damascio explains that homeostasis is a positive energy balance that is going to continue to the future. "Adjustment" done in the human body is also due to homeostasis trying to maintain life, both in the outer world and in the inner world.
Also, Damascio says, "There is no need to think about not only the brain but the whole organism," as to the question "How the physical organization in the head creates a sense of reality"? And we also need to think in terms of evolution. " Consciousness is subjective, and even while listening to the speech, it is important for the person not only to know the words of the speech but also about what is going on in the surroundings, the existence of ourselves as "observer" I continue to recognize myself. And "consciousness" is created by overlapping "recognition of the outside world" and "feelings born in the inner world".
Mr. Damascio's idea like this also leads to the idea that "intelligence is controlled by emotion". However, Mr. Damascio is not the idea that "the fact is relative" but "subjectivity is the meaning of" first person viewpoint ", which is compatible with the facts and the truth". Even though emotions become motivation to use knowledge and reasons, they do not lower their truthfulness, but simply "they call actions".
Due to the positive energy balance of human homeostasis, Mr. Damascio says "Humans want pleasure and avoid pain" Freud'sPrinciple of pleasureI am affirming. And Mr. Damascio shows that emotions, senses, and pleasure principles have been involved in the fact that mankind has formed "culture". Historically, there were attempts to reduce suffering in the background of the creation of cultural tools and cultural practices, to maximize happiness not only of the inventor but also of the entire community. The moral system and governance system are invented not for individuals, but also from the fact that they need a community.
So, why culture to reduce suffering causes war? In other words, this is also to reduce suffering.Karl MarxThey talk about the era of the 19th century as "an era of meeting and revising face-to-face" social arrangements "where people with too much wealth and people with too much suffering exist. Even in biological evolution, the mechanism that fails to control is excluded from "promoting disease". The same thing happens at the cultural level. The same can be said about religion, the fact that "teaching good deeds" does not necessarily produce good results is in line with homeostasis.
On the other hand, computer algorithms and the human nervous system do not harmonize, Mr. Damascio claims. The brain is compared with computers because neurons have "active" and "inactive" states. This is an excellent idea for organizations to perform complex and accurate operation, and artificial intelligence (AI) is making remarkable progress with this idea. But AI is not a system based on "organic life". "Emotion" exists in human motivation, but the system which controls emotions and excitement seems to be thought that it can not be applied to computers because it is adjusted in the part not synaptic signal of zero or it is not .
Also, computer equipment does not have the fragility (fragility) as in human body. There is no danger of fluctuating homeostasis, there is no danger of disease or death. Humans are weak living beings, but due to their weakness, the survival system of organisms is operating to maintain life as it is easy to forget. Damascio says that computers lack many of the key characteristics of living systems.
PeoplehumanismMr. Damascio says that he should become more modest in order to acquire him. Some organisms have no brain but only a simple mechanism, but if you analyze these organisms, you will know that it has complexity and richness irrespective of its taste. Although complexity and richness are often thought to bring about sophisticated behaviors like "great human wisdom", cultural and personal behavior can also be seen on one organism's cell . When understanding the knowledge of biology, Mr. Damascio insisted that the general "who we are" and "what position in the history of the earth stands" is understood.
in Science, Posted by logq_fa