Why are top class hackers more from Russia?
The investigation by officials continued as Russia was involved in the 2016 presidential election, and in August the same yearNSA confidential documents revealed that the Russian intelligence agency was engaged in a cyber attack on 122 US municipal officialsMeanwhile, the world famous security countermeasure software "Kaspersky"Born in the same Russia, Russia is regarded as a country with high cyber-related technology even if it is viewed globally. This means that a lot of excellent computer engineers are growing up, but why was Russia able to cultivate such talent, blog posted by security related journalist Brian Krebs .
Why So Many Top Hackers Hail from Russia - Krebs on Security
The biggest reason cited by Mr. Krebs is that it enhances computer education with the nationality. In the United States, the proportion of high school students actively receiving computer education is unexpectedly low, and high school students who chose computer science in "AP Exam (AP Exam)" conducted in the unified nation, totaled 27 years from 2005 to 2014 That being thousands(PDF)By surveyIt is obvious.
In Russia, one student who chose the computer science course called "Informatics" in the nationwide exam equivalent to the AP exam is said to be about 60,000 in a single year of 2014Investigation resultHas been announced by the research team of Perma National University. Considering this on the same decade scale as the United States, even simple calculation600 thousand peopleIt is highlighted that more than twice as many students in the United States are learning computer science, and Russia's population is about 140 million people, less than half of the US 320 million people Taking into account that, in Russia it can be said that the interest in computer science is four times that of the United States.
In the survey report "A National Talent Strategy" released by Microsoft, it was also revealed that only 2100 out of 42,000 high schools nationwide are teaching computer science subjects for AP exams as of 2011 It is.
(PDF)A National Talent Strategy
The difference between the educational system of the United States and Russia has a big influence on this difference. Russia's Federal Educational Standards (FES: Federal Education Criteria) has required Informatics classes at secondary institutions as essential subjects, and also gives high schools the option of incorporating Informatics beginners and advanced classes. In the report of Perma National University, "In elementary schools, elements of Informatics are taught in the core subjects such as mathematics and technology, Informatics is part of the curriculum for all primary schools It is permitted to incorporate it. "
The core items included in the Informatics subject matter set by FES are as follows.
1. Theoretical foundations
2. Principles of computer's functioning
3. Information technologies (information technology)
4. Network technologies (network technology)
6. Languages and methods of programming (Program language and method)
7. Modeling (modeling)
8. Informatics and Society (Informatics and Society)
There are also differences in the way teaching computer science subjects in bilateral fields and the level required for students. According to the report of the National University of Perma, students' grades are evaluated according to the following items in the Russian Informatics exam.
Block 1: Mathematical foundations of Informatics (mathematical foundation of Informatics)
Block 2: Algorithmization and programming
Block 3: Information and computer technology (Information and computer technology)
And the test problem is composed of three parts: "selection problem", "hole filling problem" and "free description problem".
The illustration of Informatics related education in Russia is as follows. Education starts at the age of seven, and gradually higher levels of education are structured until the final national unification exam.
Meanwhile, a nonprofit organization "College Board" hosting the American unification test "SAT" has been announcedDocument on computer subjects in AP examThen, the required contents are described as follows.
Computational Thinking Practices (P) (Practice of Computational Thinking)
P1: Connecting Computing (joining computational thinking)
P2: Creating Computational Artifacts (making products based on computational thinking)
P3: Abstracting (abstraction)
P4: Analyzing Problems and Artifacts (problem analysis and abstraction)
P5: Communicating (communication)
P6: Collaborating (collaboration)
Also, the outline of the concept is as follows.
Big Idea 1: Creativity
Big idea 2: Abstraction (abstraction)
Big Idea 3: Data and Information (data and information)
Big Idea 4: Algorithms (Algorithms)
Big idea 5: Programming (programming)
Big idea 6: The Internet (Internet)
Big idea 7: Global Impact (impact on the world)
In fact, it is said that there are not many schools that teach these in the United States, point out that Russia's computer education is not flourishing. On the other hand, in the Russian curriculum, "2. Principles of computer's functioning" "3. Information technologies" "4. Network technologies (network technology)" "6. Languages and Methods of programming "is an important foundation for acquiring cyber security skills, learning these contents at the time of secondary education creates a big difference It is pointed out that it is connected to.
Under such circumstances, in the United States there is a shortage of excellent programmers themselves and it is said that it has occurred for a long time. As a result, there are circumstances where foreign engineers are accepted from overseas, but it is thought that it may happen that even more talented persons may be in short supply due to strict acceptance of immigration conditions by President Trump It seems to be the current situation of.
Microsoft requested the government to budget STEM education (education on science, technology, engineering, mathematics) for the "K - 12" generation equivalent to kindergarten to elementary school, to request a budget to hire teachers, While at the same time it shows the importance of enriching efforts for similar subjects in higher education institutions for each state. In the report, Microsoft said, "This situation interferes with the growth of employment in the United States in the short term, and as a result of the increased competition in the field that America has become a pioneer in the long term view You will be born with warning bells. "