Is not Apple a company that creates innovation? Apple's present and past as seen from popularization of marketing

ByKārlis Dambrāns

A theory to explain how new ideas and technologies are spreading to society is "Dissemination"is. Together with this dissemination study and various methods in marketing, "Apple's present and past"Powell · TokachakuHe is analyzing.

What People Who Demand Innovations From Apple Do not Get?

In 1991, technology companies propose marketing methods to market innovative IT technologies "ChasmA book named "The book was published in the United States. Chasm's subtitle is "market research and sales of high-tech products targeting mainstream customers". The author of the book is Mr. Geoffrey Moore, a person with a background of working as a consultant at Silicon Valley technology company McKenna Group. While working at Silicon Valley, Mr. Moore noticed "unique regularity (chaos)" that occurred when realizing innovation, and published it as a book. Chasm e-book: Geoffrey A. Moore, Kawamata Politics: Kindle Store

However, before mentioning this "chasm", we need to introduce another book. Because another book contains an idea essential for "Cism". The other book is the innovation which is a groundbreaking existence of dissemination studies to explain why new ideas and technologies do not spread to society and how to disseminate it, Diffusion of ". The book was written by Mr. Everett Rogers exactly 29 years ago when "Cism" was published.

Promotion of innovation | Everett · Rogers, Everett M. Rogers, Sanno Toshio | book |

Rogers' idea is "Product life cycle"It is known as the process of disseminating innovation at four stages of" introduction period "" growth period "" maturity period "" decline period ", dividing consumers into 5 groups to understand the spreading stage of ideas It is easy to show.

The five consumer groups are as follows. Consumers are accepting new ideas more quickly in order from the top.

◆ Innovators
A group that adopts new ideas and technologies first. Taking risks, they are young, social classes are high, economically rich, close to social and scientific information sources and interact with other innovators. Due to its high risk tolerance, it may also adopt ideas that are not popular later.

◆ Early adopters
Group with the second adoption time. It is said to be a opinion leader, and it has the highest impact on the surroundings compared to other categories. Age is relatively young, social class is relatively high. Economically rich, high education level, sociable high. Wisely selecting employment rather than innovators and maintaining its position as a opinion leader.

◆ Early Majority
People in this category hire ideas after a certain period of time. The social class is average, and it has average contact with Early adopter.

◆ Late Majority
People who are in this category adopt ideas after average people adopt it. Even though innovation is spreading midway, I am skeptical. Social class is below average, economic outlook is low, social influence is low.

◆ Ragged
The late adoptor. Compared with other categories, social influence is extremely low. I dislike change, I am older, I prefer tradition, lower social class, and tend to interact only with my friends and my friends.

And "Cism" advocated by Moore refers to a certain large groove (Cism) especially between Early Adapter and Early Majority, whether or not it can overcome this popularization of its products and ideas Or decide whether to stay only supported by some new product geeks.

Suppose you asked "Do you know the name of the chip on your mobile phone?" When answering "yes", the other person is a gadget mania, and an important point when selecting a smartphone for that person is "how many gigabytes of RAM are loaded in the terminal and whether it is possible to insert an SD card" etc. I guess. However, if you answer "no", the important point for your opponent is "just acting" or not.

Initially at the time the iPhone was released, the "innovator" in the five consumers said, despite the fact that the iPhone could not yet send MMS from the terminal, it drooled and wanted the terminal. But beyond the chasm, that is, entering the main stream of the product lifecycle and becoming accepted by Early Majority and Late Majority, "There are two bigger changes," Mr. Tokakachu said.

One of the big two changes is that "the product itself must be changed". A product that caused destructive innovation needs to gradually change every time it evolves into a new generation. And the second is that "customers of target will change". This is one of the most challenging management decisions that managers will face, sometimes being pressed to forcibly remove all existing customers. In addition, even if we abandon those who support the company at the present moment, we must reach a new customer base, which is simply "insufficient for companies to grow further in existing customer base" That's why "he said.

ByGonzalo Baeza

Many companies are struggling to get over the chasm, but many of them are not making the "change" described above. For example, in the case of Twitter, there is a circumstance that it is difficult to bring fundamental specification changes to services like other social networking services. Because doing so leads to stimulating hardcore users who are using Twitter for many years. When actually announcing that Twitter will abolish the 140 character limit, many core users disagree, Twitter has withdrawn the elimination of 140 character limit. In this way, there are also troubles because of having a large market share.

On the other hand, Instagram is a social networking service that succeeded in successfully introducing change. Instagram started in October 2010, and the original service was the same as other photo sharing social networking services. However, we have succeeded in differentiating ourselves from other services with three unique functions. The three functions are "can not be used only on iPhone", "can not add photos from camera roll" "can only upload photos of square", this restrictive specification gives Instagram users " It is said to have planted the consciousness that "is different".

However, this restrictive specification does not last long, and the Android version of Instagram appeared in March 2012. Furthermore, it is now possible to upload photos from the camera roll so that professional photographers can share the photos taken with the camera. Some users who used Instagram from early on also shouted, "Betrayal!", But Instagram was able to grow bigger, because it took in these changes, Mr. Tokachak. In addition, after incorporating these changes Instagram will be bought by Facebook for $ 1 billion (about 110 billion yen) in April 2012.

In the case of Instagram, it turns out that it is very important for the spread of services and products to enter the main stream of the product life cycle even if we abandon the innovator.


In the past Steve Jobs said "The company has forgotten what it means to make a great product," but after his death experts compare this phrase with Apple's current situation To do. And this is exactly what represents chasm, Mr. Tokachak.

"Apple without Steve Jobs is a totally different company, they have lost their passion and vision, and Apple led by current Tim Cook CEOs are appropriate as leaders of technology companies, despite their multifaceted hands Will it be? "Is frequently fascinated with news. The answer to this question is that of psychologist Peter RobertsonHBDIIt is possible to derive the answer by multiplying the analytical method called Mr. Rogers' product life cycle, Mr. Tokakachu. HBDI is an analysis method for measuring "dominant brain" of each individual, and the brain can be classified into 4 types of "Logic" "Vision" "People" "Control".

In addition to a clear vision, Mr. Jobs had lack of interpersonal skills and several anecdotes about himself. According to Mr. Robertson, this is the element that is required at the timing to spread new ideas. Apple's market share in the smartphone market is bigger than BMW and Mercedes in the automotive industry. But in the PC industry Apple's market share is very close to that of BMW and Mercedes. And Mr. Tokachaku said that Mr. Jobs' brain type was excellant in building a brand like BMW in the automobile industry.

On the other hand, the current CEO Tim Cook listens frequently to market voices and creates products based on demand. As Mr. Jobs does not have a clear vision or intuition, it is a person suitable for Apple that is beyond the current chasm. Not being a leader with a vision like Mr. Jobs but having a solid leader like Cook CEO led the current Apple may be a suitable talent placement for Apple today.

in Note, Posted by logu_ii