How will poverty affect young brains?

ByLiving Water International

"Provide equal education to all childrenNow that the form of new education is open, poverty is thought to affect not only the opportunity to receive education but also the development of the brain itself. So, what effect does poverty have on the brain from fetus to youth?The New YorkerIt is summarized.

What Poverty Does to the Young Brain - The New Yorker

In the human brain, places that perform a high level of cognitive abilities, such as emotional control and decision making, develop in early childhood, but the brain essence itself is made in the uterus of the mother when the fetus is used . The dividing cells change to neurons, synapses and the like, the fetal cerebral cortex of 4 to 5 months is already wrinkled and ready to be developed after childbirth.

In the 1990s, research on the fact that children with mothers who ingested cocaine at the time of pregnancy got hurt by remarkable growth was taken up in the United States. In Los AngelesChildren's HospitalDevelopment neurologist Pat Mr. Levit is one of the researchers who was investigating the influence of cocaine on the fetus. Mr. Levit spent 20 years as an experiment using rabbits and as a result it is now revealing that the harm done at that time is "exaggeration". Exposed to cocaine at fetal developmental stage "Crack · BabyAlthough children who were called "lack of cognitive abilities" were sometimes referred to, children in most cases were normal. It was thought that accurate conclusions were not made in the study at the time because many people who used cocaine also had smoking habits.

ByJuliana Coutinho

Mr. Levit's attention in recent years is "the impact on puppy's fetus". Harvard UniversityNational Scientific CouncilAccording to "It is poisonous to the development of the brain that putting under extreme stress, such as overcrowded places and noise of the population, separation below the standard, separation from parents, being exposed to violence."

When a person is placed under stress it is a type of adrenocortical hormoneCortisolAlthough it is secreted, in recent studies cortisol is thought to be deeply involved in the human memory form of the brainHippocampusIt is known to shrink. Although the fetus ingests hormones through the placenta of the mother, "The fetus that was affected by cortisol through the placenta and altered in the brain's neural circuit, after the birth, after the birth, cortisol secreted by the brain to the brain There is a possibility that it may be inhibited from growing. "

Acta PaediatricaThe magazine is to move the mouth and touch the face of the childUltrasonic pictures were postedThis is thought to be a sign of the delay of the development of the nervous system which appears when the mother accumulated stress or when the mother smoked cigarettes.

In addition, in March 2015, 9 hospitals and universities cooperated and research was conducted for 1000 children,Nature NeuroscienceA paper was published in. In the research, DNA samples were collected from children, MRI scans were conducted, data on family income and education was gathered from families, and tests on reading comprehension ability and memory ability were conducted. By collecting DNA samples, we removed genetic factors out of the influence on children's brain, focused on the cerebral cortex by MRI scan, and the size of the hippocampus and the depth of wrinkles engraved on the cerebral cortex were observed is.

Experimental results revealed that children raised in the most educational families have large hippocampus and large cerebral cortex, while at the same time children with the lowest incomes have cerebral cortex of 6% I also understood that it was small. However, there is not much difference in the brains of middle-class families and wealthy children, "Wealth rich does not necessarily make a good brain, but poverty weakens the brain" can be said.

ByLeanda Xavian

At this time, how much is the income of home and university go to? It becomes matter of concern,The New York TimesThen you can draw a graph so you can see how much difference is between your expectation and the actual number.

You Draw It: How Family Income Predicts Children's College Chances -

The abscissa shows the parent's wealth and the ordinate shows the college admission rate, so if you graph your own forecast and click "I'm done", you can see yourself's forecast and actual difference.

Furthermore, in a study jointly conducted by four universities in 2013, when the brain of a 24-year-old subject was scanned, a person who was in a poverty environment at the age of 9, a portion responding to a negative emotion in the brain It was found that the activity was active more frequently than the other subjects, and on the contrary, the activity of the part suppressing negative emotions was not very active. In addition, we know that when you are exposed to stress when you are a child, it tends to be addictive after becoming an adult, and it tends to suffer from depression and heart disease.

As mentioned above, it is clear that poverty affects the brain affecting the brain and creating the next generation of poverty in previous studies, problem parents and children may be accused, but Levitt Mr. Law insists that "it is necessary to cut off the cycle of poverty to make a healthy brain."

in Science, Posted by darkhorse_log