Alexole on the blood type approaching the mystery such as "Why is there a blood type classification?" And "What is a blood type in the first place?"

ByChris Gladis

Blood is flowing in all human beings, which is essential for living. In this bloodblood cellThere is a substance composed of erythrocytes, white blood cells, and platelets called "types of blood" classified on the basis of the difference in antigen of this blood cell to "blood typeI call it. When was this "blood type" concept discovered, how long ago exist?

Why do we have blood types? | Mosaic

The concept of "blood type" was discovered by Austrian medical doctor Carl Landsteiner in 1900. Dr. Landsteiner published a paper on blood type in 1901 and in November 1930 it has won the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine from the achievement of blood type discovery. Since that time, scientists have continued to examine the blood type biologically using the various tools developed along with the evolution of technology, and as a result of that, "what kind of influence the blood type has on human health Could you give me clues about that?

◆ blood transfusion and blood type


Blood type is one of the greatest discoveries in medical history. The reason for great discovery is that if the doctor knows the blood type of the patient, the probability that human life can be saved by blood transfusion rises with gun. Until the blood type was discovered, the idea of ​​blood transfusing from human to human was thought to be impossible like a dream.RenaissanceThe doctor seems to have thought that "It may be a cure for all diseases including psychotic disorder" about injecting blood of other humans into the vein of the patient.

In the 1600's, several doctors began to practice this idea. For example, a certain doctor in France seems to have injected the calf's blood against a mad lady, the injected person sweats immediately, vomits and begins to drip the soot colored urine of the chimney Thing. In other transfusion experiments, there were instances in which men died, and the reputation for blood transfusion over 150 years since the effects of these failures became very bad.

But in the nineteenth century several doctors tried transfusion experiment again, and the person named James Blundell in the UK was one of such medicine. Like many doctors at the time, he was suffering from his own female patient losing blood due to lack of blood during childbirth and when one of the patients died of bleeding in 1817, It may be impossible to suppress the idea that the patient may have been saved by blood transfusion ", and after that it began to think deeply about blood transfusion. And Mr. Blundell convinced the reason why previous blood transfusion experiments failed because "blood of the beast was transfused to humans" and concludes that blood should not be transfused among different kinds of animals. did. From this conclusion, Mr. Blundell will now reach an extremely thoughtful idea, now that "human blood should be used when transfusing to humans", but until then nobody transfused human blood to humans I heard he did not try to do it.

ByOtis Historical Archives National Museum of Health and Medicine

Mr. Blundell used a funnel, a syringe and a tube to create a device for transfusing blood from a blood donor to a patient in need of blood, and after testing this device with a dog, several people We will transfuse the 14 ounce (about 400 grams) blood provided by the donor. A patient who was on the verge of blood loss after transfusion said to Blundell "I am clearly aware", but I died two days after the blood transfusion. However, this experience seemed to be enough to make Mr. Blundell think "blood transfusion can be a major benefit to medicine", he continued to transfuse to moribund patients over the next few years, blood transfusion It seems that he succeeded in rescuing four out of ten people who did.

After Mr. Blundell succeeded in transfusing humans to humans, human - to - human transfusion experiments will be carried out among many doctors. However, its success rate has never been high, a wide variety of approaches have been tried to increase the success rate, and in the 1870's experiments were also conducted to infuse milk into the body instead of blood, but naturally It turned out that there was no achievement at all, but rather a rather dangerous experiment.


Although the idea that "human blood should be used when transfusing to human beings" was correct, Mr. Blundell and then medical doctors knew nothing of the concept of "blood type" which is an important element on blood at all It is easy to imagine that it would have caused several patients to die. One of the reasons why many transfusion experiments conducted in the first half of the 19th century failed is "using blood collected from multiple humans together".

In the late 1800s, medical scientists noticed that when blood mixed from several humans was mixed into a test tube, the blood was solidified. However, since the majority of the blood was collected from diseased patients, the medical doctors decided not to investigate further in detail as to whether this phenomenon would be related to some kind of illness, and study this blood coagulation phenomenon in detail It was Dr. Karl Landsteiner who discovered the concept of "blood type".

Dr. Landsteiner discovered that blood often solidified even among healthy bloods, mapped the blood clotting pattern by gathering the blood of the members who were in the laboratory including themselves. And blood with red blood cellsplasmaWe conduct experiments in which each liquid is mixed, and discover that a phenomenon that solidifies when mixing different blood occurs between specific liquids. From this discovery Dr. Lantsteiner divides the blood into three groups, named "A" "B" "C", which is the current blood type classification of type A, type B, type O blood. In addition, a few years after Dr. Landsteiner's experiment, a new group "AB" was discovered,ABO blood typeIt was decided to discover all four blood types that apply to you. And in the middle of the 20th century, Philip Levine, an American researcher, will be the source of the new blood typing method Rh blood typeRh factorIs discovered and classification of blood types such as A + (Aplus) and A - (A minus) is born.

ByKen Lee

The phenomenon of blood clotting is extremely dangerous when it occurs at the time of blood transfusion, the blood circulation in the body will be interrupted if the blood is solidified in the body, oxygen will not turn around the body, it will become stuffy and will eventually die. However, Dr. Landsteiner, through experiments, said that "even if plasma of type A blood is mixed with red blood cells in human blood of other type A humans, it remains liquid, and even if the same experiment is done with B type blood, Although it remained as it is, when mixing plasma of type A blood with erythrocytes in type B blood, the liquid solidifies and even if swapping plasma and red blood cells, it solidifies in the same way "and" O type Is different from type A or type B blood, the type A or type B red blood cell and type O plasma solidify but the A or B plasma and the O red blood cell do not solidify " I will. Dr. Landsteiner did not know exactly what "depends on the blood type", but from experiments, in the case of human type A human, if blood of type A or type B is transfused, blood will set in the body I understand that there is nothing and I succeeded in keeping the risk of blood transfusion to a large extent.

"What differs depending on the blood type" has already been found by scientists' investigation. The difference in each blood type appears in red blood cells, the difference being that the red blood cells are covered with different molecules. For example, red blood cells of type A have two molecular layers on the surface, the first layerH antigen, The second layer is called A antigen. In the case of type B, this second layer is a B antigen which has a different shape from red blood cells of type A, and in the case of type O, there is only one layer on the surface of red blood cells and there is only H antigen.

The human immune system has deep connection with the blood type, and if the blood of different blood type is transfused, the body's immune system reacts to the transfused blood and starts fierce attack. Only O type blood does not comply with this principle and only H antigen is present in O type blood. Since this H antigen also exists in the body of type A or B, O type blood is A It is safe to transfuse into type or type B. And for these reasons, type O blood is useful as very valuable blood.

ByPolygon Medical Animation

◆ Is it true that the meal method by blood type is different? Lie?
In 1996, Nature Therapist Peter D'Adamo said "Eat Right 4 Your Type"I published a book called. This book is based on the content that humans should have different diets for each blood type showing evolutionary lineage, D'Adamo argues that 'blood type occurs in an important turning point of human evolution' doing. According to Mr. D'Adamo, the O type is the collection hunting ethnic group of Africa, the A type is the agricultural race, the type B is the ethnic group who lived in the highland of the Himalayas from 10,000 to 15,000 years ago, respectively He said that he has an ancestor. And AB type argues that it was born in the present age that type A and type B intersect.

From these assumptions, Mr. D'Adamo suggested each type of meal to eat in his book, for example, type A should be vegetarian, type O is an ancient hunter As we are continuing blood, we are eating a lot of meat and trying to avoid grain and dairy products. According to D'Adamo 's book, it is said that ingesting foods not suitable for humans of each blood type will cause some sickness.

D'Adamo's book is a large best seller sold 7 million copies around the world, translated into the languages ​​of 60 countries around the world and sold in Japan as Dr. Dadamo's blood type health diet. Dr. Dadamo's Blood Type Health Diet (Shueisha Bunko): Peter J. Dadamo, Peter J. D'Adamo, Hamada Yoko: Books

According to the book, Mr. D'Adamo seems to have taken a meal according to the blood type-specific diet method that he devised himself for 8 years cancer patients, but 18 years since the book was published Even the results of this experiment have not been announced. Also, a Belgian Red Cross researcher seemed to investigate the advantages of diet based on blood type using literature, but it seems that it was impossible to find a clear relationship between blood type and meal method "There is no evidence to support a healthy diet method by blood type", he commented. In addition, Ahmed El-Sohemy, who is a professor of nutrition at the University of Toronto and also known as an expert on food functional science, says "There is no diet suitable for dieting by blood type".

However, Mr. D'Adamo still claims that the dietary method by his blood type is scientifically correct.

◆ Where is the origin of the blood type?

ByChris Devers

Dietary method by blood type gained popularity because it shows its origin by blood type. However, the origin of each blood group set by Mr. D'Adamo is not in agreement with the facts about the evolutionary process of human beings collected by scientists.

After Dr. Landsteiner discovered the human blood type in 1900, other scientists repeated experiments as to what kind of animal blood can be classified. It has been found that blood types of some primate species do not clot even if they mix with human blood. For example, blood of a monkey does not solidify when mixed with human type A blood, but this does not necessarily mean that A human beings inherit the monkey's "A" gene.

In the 1990's, scientists begin to investigate blood types using molecular biology, but we will discover what is called "ABO gene" among them. For example, in the case of type A, it has an ABO gene which forms an antibody against B antigen in plasma, ABO gene which forms an antibody against A antigen in case of type B is retained, and type O blood is A antigen or B I have an ABO gene that prevents the production of enzymes that constitute antigens.

Research on comparing the human ABO gene with that of other animals is under way, Laure Segurel of the National Center for Scientific Research of the French has conducted extensive research on primate ABO genes, both gibbons and humans are A It has a blood type of type and B, I have discovered that this is a feature that came from a common ancestor alive 2000 years ago. The origin of the blood type may be older, but since scientists are not analyzing genes of all primates yet, it is very difficult to know how long the blood type exists from ancient times It is that. However, it is clear from the facts that we know now that the origin of the blood type is long ago.

In addition, it has also been found that certain types of blood does not exist in some races, chimpanzees have type A and type O blood types, like gibbons have type A and type B blood types The gorilla has only blood type B type. These facts are based on D'Adamo's "O ancestors are collecting and hunting ethnic groups in Africa, the ancestors of type A are agricultural peoples, the ancestors of type B are from the 10,000 to 15,000 years ago highland of the Himalayas Ethnic groups who lived in the city ", and they show us that the ancestors of humans were monkeys.

◆ Still unknown blood type

ByStefano Bertolotti

It is light in Mumbai in 1952 that humans are still ignorant about blood type. In 1952, a medical doctor in Mumbai discovered a blood patient who did not apply to type A, type B, type O, type AB or AB type, and the blood erythrocytes contained A antigen, B antigen, H antigen It also made it clear that there is no. This blood type is called Bombay type from the name of the land that was first discovered and it is also known as one of the dilatations that exists in 1 million in 1 million people. According to scientists, it seems that Bombay type does not have any harm, but because Bombay type blood is necessary to transfuse to Bombay type, it is very difficult to prepare blood for transfusion It is that.

ByDavid Oliver

There are also researchers who advance research on the relationship between blood type and diseases. According to Pamela Greenwell of Westminster University, "The relationship between blood type and epidemic disease has already been found to be related to many already, There are also some relationships between cancer and other diseases. "

Greenwell says that humans with blood group A + are more likely to be associated with pancreatic cancer, leukemia, smallpox, heart disease, severe malaria, etc., and O type is susceptible to ulcer and Achilles tendon rupture. Although it seems that humans of other blood types also have features such as being weak strong against some diseases, although the connection between blood type and diseases themselves can be seen, "for some reason the relationship between blood type and disease has arisen Is there anything left "unknown.

In addition, there is a connection between the blood type and diseases which have nothing to do with blood. For example, Norovirus, which causes violent vomiting and diarrhea, is a virus invading intestinal cells without being harmed by blood cells. Even though the blood cells that determine the type of blood type do not work, the infection rate of norovirus varies from blood type to blood type. This mystery leads to a serious discovery that shows that blood cells are not the only cells that produce blood group antigens, blood group antigens are also generated from the vascular wall, the respiratory tract, the skin, the hair, and even the saliva Type antigens were found to be contained in the cells.

ByMurtada al Mousawy

It is a prominent science writer who conducted various investigations on blood typeCarl ZimmerWhat he was aware of before the survey was "If you need to have a blood transfusion in a hospital, the doctor needs to transfuse the blood appropriate for the patient's blood type" It seems that it was about that. Mr. Zimmer said, "Knowing a lot about blood types was somewhat mysterious," Ajit Varki, a biologist at the University of California San Diego also said, Despite the fact that over 100 years have passed since it was discovered, we do not know exactly what the blood type is for because of what. "

in Science, Posted by logu_ii